Paintings of the 1480s Unfinished painting of Saint Jerome in the Wilderness c. 1480–1490,[d 5] Vatican In the 1480s, Leonardo received two very important commissions and
commenced another work that was of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition.
 Salaì executed a number of paintings under the name of Andrea Salaì, but although Vasari claims that Leonardo “taught him many things about painting,”[‡ 3] his work is
generally considered to be of less artistic merit than others among Leonardo’s pupils, such as Marco d’Oggiono and Boltraffio.
[‡ 4] Vasari also records that the king held Leonardo’s head in his arms as he died, although this story may be legend rather than fact.
The painting was eventually finished; in fact, two versions of the painting were finished: one remained at the chapel of the Confraternity, while Leonardo took the other to
 At some point, Melzi drew a portrait of Leonardo; the only others known from his lifetime were a sketch by an unknown assistant on the back of one of Leonardo’s studies
(c. 1517) and a drawing by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino depicting an elderly Leonardo with his right arm wrapped in clothing.
 Some 20 years after Leonardo’s death, Francis was reported by the goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini as saying: “There had never been another man born in the world
who knew as much as Leonardo, not so much about painting, sculpture and architecture, as that he was a very great philosopher.
[e] It remains uncertain where Leonardo was born; the traditional account, from a local oral tradition recorded by the historian Emanuele Repetti, is that he was
born in Anchiano, a country hamlet that would have offered sufficient privacy for the illegitimate birth, though it is still possible he was born in a house in Florence that Ser Piero almost certainly had.
The Brothers did not get their painting, however, nor the de Predis their payment, until the next century.
 Rome and France (1513–1519) An apocalyptic deluge drawn in black chalk by Leonardo near the end of his life (part of a series of 10, paired with written description in
his notebooks) In March 1513, Lorenzo de’ Medici’s son Giovanni assumed the papacy (as Leo X); Leonardo went to Rome that September, where he was received by the pope’s brother Giuliano.
 Leonardo completed a model for the horse and made detailed plans for its casting, but in November 1494, Ludovico gave the metal to his brother-in-law to be used for
a cannon to defend the city from Charles VIII of France.
One of these paintings was Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, which Bortolon associates with a difficult period of Leonardo’s life, as evidenced in his diary: “I thought I was
learning to live; I was only learning to die.
 The pope gave him a painting commission of unknown subject matter, but cancelled it when the artist set about developing a new kind of varnish.
[q] The latter, in addition to the record of an October 1517 visit by Louis d’Aragon,[r] confirms an account of Leonardo’s right hand being paralytic when he was 65,
which may indicate why he left works such as the Mona Lisa unfinished.
 In both Annunciations, Leonardo used a formal arrangement, like two well-known pictures by Fra Angelico of the same subject, of the Virgin Mary sitting or kneeling to
the right of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with a rich flowing garment, raised wings and bearing a lily.
Leonardo is identified as one of the greatest painters in the history of art and is often credited as the founder of the High Renaissance.
According to Vasari, Leonardo collaborated with Verrocchio on his The Baptism of Christ, painting the young angel holding Jesus’ robe in a manner that was so far superior
to his master’s that Verrocchio put down his brush and never painted again,[‡ 1] although this is believed to be an apocryphal story.
The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time and his Vitruvian Man drawing is also regarded as a cultural icon.
 The Council of Florence wished Leonardo to return promptly to finish The Battle of Anghiari, but he was given leave at the behest of Louis XII, who considered commissioning
the artist to make some portraits.
The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama also appear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi, a commission
from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto.
 Paintings Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements
as a painter.
 Nevertheless, Leonardo treated him with great indulgence, and he remained in Leonardo’s household for the next thirty years.
Leonardo, inspired by the story of Medusa, responded with a painting of a monster spitting fire that was so terrifying that his father bought a different shield to give to
the peasant and sold Leonardo’s to a Florentine art dealer for 100 ducats, who in turn sold it to the Duke of Milan.
 On his return to Florence in 1500, he and his household were guests of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata and were provided with a workshop where,
according to Vasari, Leonardo created the cartoon of The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist, a work that won such admiration that “men [and] women, young and old” flocked to see it “as if they were going to a solemn
Leonardo first gained attention for his work on the Baptism of Christ, painted in conjunction with Verrocchio.
 While on a journey that took him through Mantua, he drew a portrait of Isabella that appears to have been used to create a painted portrait, now lost.
Later in the year, Leonardo produced another map for his patron, one of Chiana Valley, Tuscany, so as to give his patron a better overlay of the land and greater strategic
 While the painting is quite large, about 200×120 centimetres, it is not nearly as complex as the painting ordered by the monks of San Donato, having only four figures
rather than about fifty and a rocky landscape rather than architectural details.
 His magnum opus, the Mona Lisa, is his best known work and often regarded as the world’s most famous painting.
[v] Early works Annunciation c. 1472–1476,[d 4] Uffizi, is thought to be Leonardo’s earliest extant and complete major work.
Two other paintings appear to date from his time at Verrocchio’s workshop, both of which are Annunciations.
 Born: Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci; 15 April 1452, (possibly Anchiano),[a] Vinci, Republic of Florence; Died: 2 May 1519 (aged 67), Clos Lucé, Amboise, Kingdom of France;
Education: Studio of Andrea del Verrocchio; Known for: Painting, Drawing, engineering, anatomical studies, hydrology, botany, optics, geology; Notable work: Virgin of the Rocks (c. 1483–1493), Lady with an Ermine (c. 1489–1491), The Vitruvian
Man (c. 1490), The Last Supper (c. 1495–1498), Mona Lisa (c. 1503–1516); Movement: High Renaissance; Family: Da Vinci family Biography Early life (1452–1472) Birth and background The possible birthplace and childhood home of Leonardo in Anchiano,
Vinci, Italy Leonardo da Vinci,[b] properly named Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo, son of ser Piero from Vinci),[c] was born on 15 April 1452 in, or close to, the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, 20 miles from Florence.
Leonardo wrote Sforza a letter which described the diverse things that he could achieve in the fields of engineering and weapon design, and mentioned that he could paint.
Piero della Francesca had made a detailed study of perspective, and was the first painter to make a scientific study of light.
The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers, was to fill a large complex altarpiece.
 Despite having many lost works and fewer than 25 attributed major works—including numerous unfinished works—he created some of the most influential paintings in Western
 Tax records indicate that by at least 1457 he lived in the household of his paternal grandfather, Antonio da Vinci, but it is possible that he spent the years
before then in the care of his mother in Vinci, either Anchiano or Campo Zeppi in the parish of San Pantaleone.
All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, and the Virgin of the Rocks.
 Close examination reveals areas of the work that have been painted or touched-up over the tempera, using the new technique of oil paint, including the landscape, the
rocks seen through the brown mountain stream, and much of the figure of Jesus, bearing witness to the hand of Leonardo.
Later, he worked in Florence and Milan again, as well as briefly in Rome, all while attracting a large following of imitators and students.
 Despite his family history, Leonardo only received a basic and informal education in (vernacular) writing, reading and mathematics, possibly because his artistic talents
were recognised early, so his family decided to focus their attention there.
An anonymous early biographer, known as Anonimo Gaddiano, claims that in 1480 Leonardo was living with the Medici and often worked in the garden of the Piazza San Marco, Florence,
where a Neoplatonic academy of artists, poets and philosophers organized by the Medici met.
[f] From all the marriages, Leonardo eventually had 16 half-siblings (of whom 11 survived infancy) who were much younger than he (the last was born when Leonardo
was 46 years old) and with whom he had very little contact.
 Vasari tells a story of Leonardo as a very young man: a local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him.
“ Personal life Despite the thousands of pages Leonardo left in notebooks and manuscripts, he scarcely made reference to his personal life.
1482) Adoration of the Magi c. 1478–1482,[d 1] Uffizi, Florence By 1472, at the age of 20, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke, the guild of artists
and doctors of medicine,[j] but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate and live with him.
 From September 1513 to 1516, Leonardo spent much of his time living in the Belvedere Courtyard in the Apostolic Palace, where Michelangelo and Raphael were both active.
 Ser Piero, who was the descendant of a long line of notaries, established an official residence in Florence by at least 1469 and had a successful career.
 He is thought to have been close to his uncle, Francesco da Vinci, but his father was probably in Florence most of the time.
[o] Leonardo became ill, in what may have been the first of multiple strokes leading to his death.
 Since that date much has been written about his presumed homosexuality and its role in his art, particularly in the androgyny and eroticism manifested in Saint
John the Baptist and Bacchus and more explicitly in a number of erotic drawings.
[‡ 6] Leonardo had many friends who are now notable either in their fields or for their historical significance, including mathematician Luca Pacioli, with whom he
collaborated on the book Divina proportione in the 1490s.
By this same month, Leonardo had begun working on a portrait of Lisa del Giocondo, the model for the Mona Lisa, which he would continue working on until his twilight
[g] Very little is known about Leonardo’s childhood and much is shrouded in myth, partially because of his biography in the frequently apocryphal Lives of the Most Excellent
Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550) by the 16th-century art historian Giorgio Vasari.
By the 1490s Leonardo had already been described as a “Divine” painter.
 Leonardo’s earliest known dated work is a 1473 pen-and-ink drawing of the Arno valley (see below).
 Around the age of 14, he became a garzone (studio boy) in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, who was the leading Florentine painter and sculptor of his time.
Being frequently visited by Francis, he drew plans for an immense castle town the king intended to erect at Romorantin, and made a mechanical lion, which during a pageant
walked toward the king and—upon being struck by a wand—opened its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies.
 Leonardo chose to paint an apocryphal moment of the infancy of Christ when the infant John the Baptist, in protection of an angel, met the Holy Family on the road to
[h] Leonardo became an apprentice by the age of 17 and remained in training for seven years.
In January 1504, he was part of a committee formed to recommend where Michelangelo’s statue of David should be placed.
 • Head of a Woman, c. 1483–1485, Royal Library of Turin • Portrait of a Musician, c. 1483–1487, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan • The Vitruvian Man (c. 1485) Accademia,
Venice • Leonardo’s horse in silverpoint, c. 1488 • La Belle Ferronnière, c. 1490–1498 • Detail of 1902 restoration, trompe-l’œil painting (1498) Second Florentine period (1500–1508) The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John
the Baptist, c. 1499–1508, National Gallery, London When Ludovico Sforza was overthrown by France in 1500, Leonardo fled Milan for Venice, accompanied by his assistant Salaì and friend, the mathematician Luca Pacioli.
 Leonardo was present at the 19 December meeting of Francis I and Leo X, which took place in Bologna.
• The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, c. 1501–1519, Louvre, Paris • Leonardo’s map of Imola, created for Cesare Borgia, 1502 • Study for The Battle of Anghiari (now lost),
c. 1503, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest • La Scapigliata, c. 1506–1508 (unfinished), Galleria Nazionale di Parma, Parma • Study for Leda and the Swan (now lost), c. 1506–1508, Chatsworth House, England Second Milanese period (1508–1513) By
1508, Leonardo was back in Milan, living in his own house in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila.
[u] Melzi was the principal heir and executor, receiving, as well as money, Leonardo’s paintings, tools, library and personal effects.
“ Although the painting is barely begun, the composition can be seen and is very unusual.
 Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret.
 Leonardo was employed on many other projects for Sforza, such as preparation of floats and pageants for special occasions; a drawing of, and wooden model for, a competition
to design the cupola for Milan Cathedral; and a model for a huge equestrian monument to Ludovico’s predecessor Francesco Sforza.
Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture that forms part of the background.
 Verrocchio’s workshop The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475) by Verrocchio and Leonardo, Uffizi Gallery In the mid-1460s, Leonardo’s family moved to Florence, which at the
time was the centre of Christian Humanist thought and culture.
Upon the invitation of Francis I, he spent his last three years in France, where he died in 1519.
It is a “predella” to go at the base of a larger composition, a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated.
In 2017, Salvator Mundi, attributed in whole or part to Leonardo, was sold at auction for US$450.3 million, setting a new record for the most expensive painting ever sold
at public auction.
[‘See Nicholl (2005, pp. 17–20) and Bambach (2019, p. 24) for further information on the dispute and uncertainty surrounding Leonardo’s exact birthplace.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b English: /ˌliːəˈnɑːrdoʊ də ˈvɪntʃi, ˌliːoʊˈ-, ˌleɪoʊˈ-/; LEE-ə-NAR-doh də
VIN-chee, LEE-oh-, LAY-oh-
3. ^ Italian: [leoˈnardo di ˈsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃi] ( listen) The inclusion of the title ‘ser’ (shortening of Italian Messer or Messere, title of courtesy prefixed to the first name) indicates that Leonardo’s father
was a gentleman.
4. ^ The diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio relays a precise account: “There was born to me a grandson, son of Ser Piero [fr], on 15 April, a Saturday, at the third hour of the night.” Ser Antonio records Leonardo
being baptized the following day by Piero di Bartolomeo at the parish of Santa Croce [it].
5. ^ It has been suggested that Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East “or at least, from the Mediterranean” or even of Chinese descent.
According to art critic Alessandro Vezzosi, head of the Leonardo Museum in Vinci, there is evidence that Piero owned a slave called Caterina. The reconstruction of one of Leonardo’s fingerprints shows a pattern that matches 60% of people of Middle
Eastern origin, suggesting the possibility that Leonardo may have had Middle Eastern blood. The claim is refuted by Simon Cole, associate professor of criminology, law and society at the University of California at Irvine: “You can’t predict one
person’s race from these kinds of incidences, especially if looking at only one finger”. More recently, historian Martin Kemp, after digging through overlooked archives and records in Italy, found evidence that Leonardo’s mother was a young local
woman identified as Caterina di Meo Lippi.
6. ^ See Kemp & Pallanti (2017, pp. 65–66) for detailed table on Ser Piero’s marriages.
7. ^ He also never wrote about his father, except a passing note of his death in which he overstates his age
by three years. Leonardo’s siblings caused him difficulty after his father’s death in a dispute over their inheritance.
8. ^ The humanist influence of Donatello’s David can be seen in Leonardo’s late paintings, particularly John the
9. ^ The “diverse arts” and technical skills of Medieval and Renaissance workshops are described in detail in the 12th-century text On Divers Arts by Theophilus Presbyter and in the early 15th-century text Il Libro Dell’arte O
Trattato Della Pittui by Cennino Cennini.
10. ^ That Leonardo joined the guild by this time is deduced from the record of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca in the company’s register, Libro Rosso A, 1472–1520, Accademia di Belle Arti.
On the back he wrote: “I, staying with Anthony, am happy,” possibly in reference to his father.
12. ^ Leonardo later wrote in the margin of a journal, “The Medici made me and the Medici destroyed me.”
13. ^ In 2005, the studio was rediscovered
during the restoration of part of a building occupied for 100 years by the Department of Military Geography.
14. ^ Both works are lost. The entire composition of Michelangelo’s painting is known from a copy by Aristotole da Sangallo, 1542.
Leonardo’s painting is known only from preparatory sketches and several copies of the centre section, of which the best known, and probably least accurate, is by Peter Paul Rubens.
15. ^ Pope Leo X is quoted as saying, “This man will never
accomplish anything! He thinks of the end before the beginning!” 
16. ^ It is unknown for what occasion the mechanical lion was made, but it is believed to have greeted the king at his entry into Lyon and perhaps was used for the peace talks
between the French king and Pope Leo X in Bologna. A conjectural recreation of the lion has been made and is on display in the Museum of Bologna.
17. ^ Identified via its similarity to Leonardo’s presumed self-portrait
18. ^ “… Messer
Lunardo Vinci [sic] … an old graybeard of more than 70 years … showed His Excellency three pictures … from whom, since he was then subject to a certain paralysis of the right hand, one could not expect any more good work.” 
19. ^ This
scene is portrayed in romantic paintings by Ingres, Ménageot and other French artists, as well as Angelica Kauffman.
20. ^ Jump up to:a b On the day of Leonardo’s death, a royal edict was issued by the king at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a two-day journey
from Clos Lucé. This has been taken as evidence that King Francis cannot have been present at Leonardo’s deathbed, but the edict was not signed by the king.
21. ^ Each of the sixty paupers were to have been awarded in accord with Leonardo’s
22. ^ These qualities of Leonardo’s works are discussed in Hartt (1970, pp. 387–411)
23. ^ The painting, which in the 18th century belonged to Angelica Kauffman, was later cut up. The two main sections were found in a junk shop and
cobbler’s shop and were reunited. It is probable that outer parts of the composition are missing.
24. ^ This work is now in the collection of the Uffizi, Drawing No. 8P.
25. ^ The “Grecian profile” has a continuous straight line from forehead
to nose-tip, the bridge of the nose being exceptionally high. It is a feature of many Classical Greek statues.
26. ^ He also drew with his left hand, his hatch strokes “slanting down from left to right—the natural stroke of a left-handed artist”.
He also sometimes wrote conventionally with his right hand.
27. ^ Salvator Mundi, a painting by Leonardo depicting Jesus holding an orb, sold for a world record US$450.3 million at a Christie’s auction in New York, 15 November 2017. The
highest known sale price for any artwork was previously US$300 million, for Willem de Kooning’s Interchange, which was sold privately in September 2015. The highest price previously paid for a work of art at auction was for Pablo Picasso’s
Les Femmes d’Alger, which sold for US$179.4 million in May 2015 at Christie’s New York.
Dates of works
1. ^ The Adoration of the Magi
Kemp (2019, p. 27): c. 1481–1482
Marani (2003, p. 338): 1481
Syson et al.
(2011, p. 56): c. 1480–1482
Zöllner (2019, p. 222): 1481/1482
2. ^ Virgin of the Rocks (Louvre version)
Kemp (2019, p. 41): c. 1483–1493
Marani (2003, p. 339): between 1483 and 1486
Syson et al. (2011,
p. 164): 1483–c. 1485
Zöllner (2019, p. 223): 1483–1484/1485
3. ^ Saint John the Baptist
Kemp (2019, p. 189): c. 1507–1514
Marani (2003, p. 340): c. 1508
Syson et al. (2011, p. 63): c. 1500
Zöllner (2019, p. 248): c. 1508–1516
4. ^ The Annunciation
Kemp (2019, p. 6): c. 1473–1474
Marani (2003, p. 338): c. 1472–1475
Syson et al. (2011, p. 15): c. 1472–1476
(2019, p. 216): c. 1473–1475
5. ^ Saint Jerome in the Wilderness
Kemp (2019, p. 31): c. 1481–1482
Marani (2003, p. 338): probably c. 1480
Syson et al. (2011, p. 139): c. 1488–1490
p. 221): c. 1480–1482
6. ^ Lady with an Ermine
Kemp (2019, p. 49): c. 1491
Marani (2003, p. 339): 1489–1490
Syson et al. (2011, p. 111): c. 1489–1490
Zöllner (2019, p. 226): 1489/1490
7. ^ The
Kemp (2019, p. 67): c. 1495–1497
Marani (2003, p. 339): between 1494 and 1498
Syson et al. (2011, p. 252): 1492–1497/1498
Zöllner (2019, p. 230): c. 1495–1498
8. ^ Mona Lisa
(2019, p. 127): c. 1503–1515
Marani (2003, p. 340): c. 1503–1504; 1513–1514
Syson et al. (2011, p. 48): c. 1502 onward
Zöllner (2019, p. 240): c. 1503–1506; 1510
1. ^ Vasari 1991,
2. ^ Vasari 1991, pp. 287–289
3. ^ Jump up to:a b c Vasari 1991, p. 293
4. ^ Vasari 1991, p. 297
5. ^ Vasari 1991, p. 284
6. ^ Vasari 1991, p. 286
7. ^ Jump up to:a b Vasari 1991, p. 290
8. ^ Vasari 1991, pp. 289–291
9. ^ Vasari
1991, p. 294
10. ^ Vasari 1965, p. 266
11. ^ Vasari 1965, p. 255
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2. ^ Jump up to:a b Zöllner
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3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Kemp 2003.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Heydenreich 2020.
5. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 250.
6. ^ Kaplan, Erez (1996). “Roberto Guatelli’s Controversial Replica of Leonardo da Vinci’s Adding Machine”. Archived
from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
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11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Brown 1998, p. 5.
12. ^ Nicholl 2005, p. 17.
13. ^ Vezzosi 1997, p. 13.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Ottino della Chiesa 1985, p. 83.
15. ^ Nicholl 2005, p. 20.
Bambach 2019, pp. 16, 24.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b Marani 2003, p. 13.
18. ^ Bambach 2019, p. 16.
19. ^ Hooper, John (12 April 2008). “Da Vinci’s mother was a slave, Italian study claims”. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
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Dalya (21 May 2017). “Tuscan archives yield up secrets of Leonardo’s mystery mother”. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
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23. ^ Kemp & Pallanti 2017, p. 65.
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26. ^ Magnano 2007, p. 138.
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29. ^ Brown 1998, p. 175.
30. ^ Nicholl 2005, p. 28.
31. ^ Nicholl
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32. ^ Nicholl 2005, p. 30. See p. 506 for the original Italian.
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Franz-Joachim Verspohl [de], Michelangelo Buonarroti und Leonardo Da Vinci: Republikanischer Alltag und Künstlerkonkurrenz in Florenz zwischen 1501 und 1505 (Wallstein Verlag, 2007), p. 151.
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Artists). Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 2019. pp. 103–114. ISBN 978-1-60606-621-8.
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& Konecky. ISBN 978-1-56852-198-5.
• Bambach, Carmen C., ed. (2003). Leonardo da Vinci, Master Draftsman. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-300-09878-5.
• Bambach, Carmen C. (2019). Leonardo da Vinci Rediscovered. Vol. 1, The Making
of an Artist: 1452–1500. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-19195-0.
• Bortolon, Liana (1967). The Life and Times of Leonardo. London: Paul Hamlyn.
• Brown, David Alan (1998). Leonardo Da Vinci: Origins of a Genius. New Haven: Yale
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Art. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-008649-2.
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Vinci and His Works: Consisting of a Life of Leonardo Da Vinci. New York: Macmillan Publishers. OCLC 1706262.
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• Kemp, Martin (2006) . Leonardo
Da Vinci: The Marvellous Works of Nature and Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920778-7.
• Kemp, Martin (2011) . Leonardo (Revised ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280644-4.
• Kemp, Martin;
Pallanti, Giuseppe (2017). Mona Lisa: The People and the Painting. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-874990-5.
• Kemp, Martin (2019). Leonardo da Vinci: The 100 Milestones. New York: Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4549-3042-6.
• Magnano, Milena
(2007). Leonardo, collana I Geni dell’arte. Mondadori Arte. ISBN 978-88-370-6432-7.
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The Rise of the Artist. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-56006-8.
• Nicholl, Charles (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-029681-5.
• O’Malley, Charles D.; Sounders, J.B. de C.M. (1952). Leonardo
on the Human Body: The Anatomical, Physiological, and Embryological Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. With Translations, Emendations and a Biographical Introduction. New York: Henry Schuman.
• Pedretti, Carlo (1982). Leonardo, a study in chronology
and style. Cambridge: Johnson Reprint Corp. ISBN 978-0-384-45281-7.
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• Popham, A.E. (1946). The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. Jonathan Cape.
• Richter, Jean Paul (1970). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-22572-2. volume 2: ISBN 0-486-22573-9. A reprint of the original 1883 edition
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• Turner, A. Richard
(1993). Inventing Leonardo. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-520-08938-9.
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• Williamson, Hugh Ross (1974). Lorenzo the Magnificent. Michael Joseph. ISBN 978-0-7181-1204-2.
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Alexandra (English translation ed.). London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-30081-7.
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Journals and encyclopedia articles
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• Cremante, Simona (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor. Giunti. ISBN 978-88-09-03891-2.
• Giacomelli, Raffaele
(1936). Gli scritti di Leonardo da Vinci sul volo. Roma: G. Bardi.
• Heydenreich, Ludwig Heinrich (28 April 2020). “Leonardo da Vinci | Biography, Art & Facts | Britannica”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Martin (2003). “Leonardo da Vinci”. Grove Art Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T050401. ISBN 978-1-884446-05-4. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
• Lupia, John N. (Summer 1994).
“The Secret Revealed: How to Look at Italian Renaissance Painting”. Medieval and Renaissance Times. 1 (2): 6–17. ISSN 1075-2110.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/quintanomedia/9484354480/’]