The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular
self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.
• Molecular Beam Epitaxy allows for bottom up assemblies of materials, most notably semiconductor materials commonly used in chip and Top-down approaches These seek to create
smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.
In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete,
 C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related carbon nanotubes (sometimes called graphene tubes or Bucky
tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.
This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological
goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold.
 Simple to complex: a molecular perspective Main article: Molecular self-assembly Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small
molecules to almost any structure.
However, Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based
on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly
to atomic specification.
 • Programmable matter seeks to design materials whose properties can be easily, reversibly and externally controlled though a fusion of information science and materials
Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea
of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control.
• Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next generation of products, such as display technology, lighting, solar cells and
biological imaging; see quantum dots.
It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common
trait is size.
• Many technologies that descended from conventional solid-state silicon methods for fabricating microprocessors are now capable of creating features smaller than 100 nm,
falling under the definition of nanotechnology.
Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.
However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already
approved for human use in some countries.
 Nevertheless, progress on innovative materials and methodologies has been demonstrated with some patents granted about new nanomanufacturing devices for future commercial
applications, which also progressively helps in the development towards nanorobots with the use of embedded nanobioelectronics concepts.
This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies
consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.
The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.
Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production,
and consumer products.
The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale
products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology.
The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which the phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of
in the nano device.
In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.
 Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy.
 These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger
scale and come under the description of microtechnology.
The emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual
framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter.
Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno, is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines.
• Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications; see Nanomedicine.
Nanowire lasers for ultrafast transmission of information in light pulses Main article: List of nanotechnology applications As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging
Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 3–4 per week.
Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and
complexity of the desired assembly increases.
• More generally, molecular self-assembly seeks to use concepts of supramolecular chemistry, and molecular recognition in particular, to cause single-molecule components to
automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation.
• Nanoscale materials can also be used for bulk applications; most present commercial applications of nanotechnology are of this flavor.
• Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale “write head” to deposit a chemical upon a surface in a desired pattern in a process called dip pen nanolithography.
 In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.
 Also, to build structures for on chip computing with light, for example on chip optical quantum information processing, and picosecond transmission of information.
The premise was that molecular-scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found
in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimized biological machines can be produced.
Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes.
It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles.
Main article: Nanomaterials Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases.
• Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale “write head” to deposit a resist, which is then followed by an etching process to remove material in a top-down method.
 A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defined nanotechnology as the manipulation
of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.
Giant magnetoresistance-based hard drives already on the market fit this description, as do atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques.
These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered
with great reductions in particle size.
By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US.
However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm.
Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications.
Molecular nanotechnology: a long-term view Main article: Molecular nanotechnology Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered
nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale.
Biomineralization is one example of the systems studied.
 • Molecular scale electronics seeks to develop molecules with useful electronic properties.
 • Solid-state techniques can also be used to create devices known as nanoelectromechanical systems or NEMS, which are related to microelectromechanical systems or MEMS.
• Focused ion beams can directly remove material, or even deposit material when suitable precursor gasses are applied at the same time.
Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals,
For example, this technique is used routinely to create sub-100 nm sections of material for analysis in Transmission electron microscopy.
Origins Main article: History of nanotechnology The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There’s
Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms.
 Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology.
One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials.
These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter.
• Synthetic chemical methods can also be used to create synthetic molecular motors, such as in a so-called nanocar.
These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers.
Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles
The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with
the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.
Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.
 Research and development See also: World Intellectual Property Indicators Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments
have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research.
Biomimetic approaches • Bionics or biomimicry seeks to apply biological methods and systems found in nature, to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
 Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner’s office and at home.
[‘Drexler, K. Eric (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-19973-5.
2. ^ Drexler, K. Eric (1992). Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-57547-4.
Hubler, A. (2010). “Digital quantum batteries: Energy and information storage in nanovacuum tube arrays”. Complexity. 15 (5): 48–55. doi:10.1002/cplx.20306. S2CID 6994736.
4. ^ Shinn, E. (2012). “Nuclear energy conversion with stacks of graphene
nanocapacitors”. Complexity. 18 (3): 24–27. Bibcode:2013Cmplx..18c..24S. doi:10.1002/cplx.21427. S2CID 35742708.
5. ^ Elishakoff,I., D. Pentaras, K. Dujat, C. Versaci, G. Muscolino, J. Storch, S. Bucas, N. Challamel, T. Natsuki, Y.Y. Zhang, C.M.
Wang and G. Ghyselinck, Carbon Nanotubes and Nano Sensors: Vibrations, Buckling, and Ballistic Impact, ISTE-Wiley, London, 2012, XIII+pp.421; ISBN 978-1-84821-345-6.
6. ^ Lyon, David; et., al. (2013). “Gap size dependence of the dielectric strength
in nano vacuum gaps”. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 20 (4): 1467–1471. doi:10.1109/TDEI.2013.6571470. S2CID 709782.
7. ^ Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha (2010). “Nanotechnology: The Future Medicine”.
Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 3 (1): 32–33. doi:10.4103/0974-2077.63301. PMC 2890134. PMID 20606992.
8. ^ Belkin, A.; et., al. (2015). “Self-Assembled Wiggling Nano-Structures and the Principle of Maximum Entropy Production”. Sci.
Rep. 5: 8323. Bibcode:2015NatSR…5E8323B. doi:10.1038/srep08323. PMC 4321171. PMID 25662746.
9. ^ Buzea, C.; Pacheco, I. I.; Robbie, K. (2007). “Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity”. Biointerphases. 2 (4): MR17–MR71. arXiv:0801.3280.
doi:10.1116/1.2815690. PMID 20419892. S2CID 35457219.
10. ^ Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H. (1986). “Scanning tunneling microscopy”. IBM Journal of Research and Development. 30 (4): 355–69.
11. ^ “Press Release: the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics”. Nobelprize.org.
15 October 1986. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
12. ^ Kroto, H. W.; Heath, J. R.; O’Brien, S. C.; Curl, R. F.; Smalley, R. E. (1985). “C60: Buckminsterfullerene”. Nature. 318 (6042): 162–163. Bibcode:1985Natur.318..162K.
doi:10.1038/318162a0. S2CID 4314237.
13. ^ Adams, W. W.; Baughman, R. H. (2005). “RETROSPECTIVE: Richard E. Smalley (1943-2005)”. Science. 310 (5756): 1916. doi:10.1126/science.1122120. PMID 16373566.
14. ^ Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, V (2006).
“Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?” (PDF). Carbon. 44 (9): 1621–1623. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.03.019.
15. ^ Pasa, André Avelino (2010). “Chapter 13: Metal Nanolayer-Base Transistor”. Handbook of Nanophysics:
Nanoelectronics and Nanophotonics. CRC Press. pp. 13–1, 13–4. ISBN 9781420075519.
16. ^ Tsu‐Jae King, Liu (June 11, 2012). “FinFET: History, Fundamentals and Future”. University of California, Berkeley. Symposium on VLSI Technology Short Course.
Retrieved 9 July 2019.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b “Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties”. Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering. July 2004. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
“Nanotechnology: Drexler and Smalley make the case for and against ‘molecular assemblers'”. Chemical & Engineering News. 81 (48): 37–42. 1 December 2003. doi:10.1021/cen-v081n036.p037. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b “Nanotechnology
Information Center: Properties, Applications, Research, and Safety Guidelines”. American Elements. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
20. ^ Jump up to:a b “Analysis: This is the first publicly available on-line
inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products”. The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. 2008. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
21. ^ “Productive Nanosystems Technology Roadmap” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the
original on 2013-09-08.
22. ^ “NASA Draft Nanotechnology Roadmap” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-01-22.
23. ^ “Still Room at the Bottom (nanometer transistor developed by Yang-kyu Choi from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology)”, Nanoparticle News, 1 April 2006, archived from the original on 6 November 2012
24. ^ Lee, Hyunjin; et al. (2006), “Sub-5nm All-Around Gate FinFET for Ultimate Scaling”, Symposium on VLSI Technology, 2006: 58–59, doi:10.1109/VLSIT.2006.1705215,
hdl:10203/698, ISBN 978-1-4244-0005-8, S2CID 26482358
25. ^ Jump up to:a b c d World Intellectual Property Report: Breakthrough Innovation and Economic Growth (PDF). World Intellectual Property Organization. 2015. pp. 112–4. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
Allhoff, Fritz; Lin, Patrick; Moore, Daniel (2010). What is nanotechnology and why does it matter?: from science to ethics. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-1-4051-7545-6.
27. ^ Prasad, S. K. (2008). Modern Concepts in Nanotechnology. Discovery
Publishing House. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-81-8356-296-6.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b Kahn, Jennifer (2006). “Nanotechnology”. National Geographic. 2006 (June): 98–119.
29. ^ Jump up to:a b Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko (27 October 2015). “Magnetic Assembly
of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Clusters into Nanochains and Nanobundles”. ACS Nano. 9 (10): 9700–9707. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b02328. PMID 26394039.
30. ^ Rodgers, P. (2006). “Nanoelectronics: Single file”. Nature Nanotechnology. doi:10.1038/nnano.2006.5.
Lubick N; Betts, Kellyn (2008). “Silver socks have cloudy lining”. Environ Sci Technol. 42 (11): 3910. Bibcode:2008EnST…42.3910L. doi:10.1021/es0871199. PMID 18589943. S2CID 26887347.
32. ^ Phoenix, Chris (March 2005) Nanotechnology: Developing
Molecular Manufacturing Archived 2005-09-01 at the Wayback Machine. crnano.org
33. ^ “Some papers by K. Eric Drexler”. imm.org. Archived from the original on 2006-04-11.
34. ^ Carlo Montemagno, Ph.D. Archived 2011-09-17 at the Wayback Machine
California NanoSystems Institute
35. ^ “Cover Story – Nanotechnology”. Chemical and Engineering News. 81 (48): 37–42. December 1, 2003.
36. ^ Regan, BC; Aloni, S; Jensen, K; Ritchie, RO; Zettl, A (2005). “Nanocrystal-powered nanomotor” (PDF).
Nano Letters. 5 (9): 1730–3. Bibcode:2005NanoL…5.1730R. doi:10.1021/nl0510659. OSTI 1017464. PMID 16159214. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-10.
37. ^ Regan, B. C.; Aloni, S.; Jensen, K.; Zettl, A. (2005). “Surface-tension-driven nanoelectromechanical
relaxation oscillator” (PDF). Applied Physics Letters. 86 (12): 123119. Bibcode:2005ApPhL..86l3119R. doi:10.1063/1.1887827. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-05-26.
38. ^ Goodman, R.P.; Schaap, I.A.T.; Tardin, C.F.; Erben, C.M.; Berry, R.M.;
Schmidt, C.F.; Turberfield, A.J. (9 December 2005). “Rapid chiral assembly of rigid DNA building blocks for molecular nanofabrication”. Science. 310 (5754): 1661–1665. Bibcode:2005Sci…310.1661G. doi:10.1126/science.1120367. PMID 16339440. S2CID
39. ^ “Wireless Nanocrystals Efficiently Radiate Visible Light”. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
40. ^ Narayan, R. J.; Kumta, P. N.; Sfeir, Ch.; Lee, D-H; Choi, D.; Olton, D. (2004). “Nanostructured
Ceramics in Medical Devices: Applications and Prospects”. JOM. 56 (10): 38–43. Bibcode:2004JOM….56j..38N. doi:10.1007/s11837-004-0289-x. S2CID 137324362.
41. ^ Cho, Hongsik; Pinkhassik, Eugene; David, Valentin; Stuart, John; Hasty, Karen (31 May
2015). “Detection of early cartilage damage using targeted nanosomes in a post-traumatic osteoarthritis mouse model”. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 11 (4): 939–946. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2015.01.011. PMID 25680539.
42. ^ Kerativitayanan,
Punyavee; Carrow, James K.; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K. (May 2015). “Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses”. Advanced Healthcare Materials. 4 (11): 1600–27. doi:10.1002/adhm.201500272. PMID 26010739. S2CID 21582516.
43. ^ Gaharwar, A.K.; Sant,
S.; Hancock, M.J.; Hacking, S.A., eds. (2013). Nanomaterials in tissue engineering : fabrication and applications. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85709-596-1.
44. ^ Gaharwar, A.K.; Peppas, N.A.; Khademhosseini, A. (March 2014). “Nanocomposite
hydrogels for biomedical applications”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 111 (3): 441–53. doi:10.1002/bit.25160. PMC 3924876. PMID 24264728.
45. ^ Eslamian L, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Karimi S, Saadat S, Badiee MR (July 2020). “Evaluation of the Shear
Bond Strength and Antibacterial Activity of Orthodontic Adhesive Containing Silver Nanoparticle, an In-Vitro Study”. Nanomaterials. 10 (8): 1466. doi:10.3390/nano10081466. PMC 7466539. PMID 32727028.
46. ^ Levins, Christopher G.; Schafmeister, Christian
E. (2006). “The Synthesis of Curved and Linear Structures from a Minimal Set of Monomers”. ChemInform. 37 (5). doi:10.1002/chin.200605222.
47. ^ “Applications/Products”. National Nanotechnology Initiative. Archived from the original on 2010-11-20.
48. ^ “The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007”. Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
49. ^ Das S, Gates AJ, Abdu HA, Rose GS, Picconatto CA, Ellenbogen JC (2007). “Designs for Ultra-Tiny,
Special-Purpose Nanoelectronic Circuits”. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I. 54 (11): 2528–2540. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2007.907864. S2CID 13575385.
50. ^ Mashaghi, S.; Jadidi, T.; Koenderink, G.; Mashaghi, A. (2013). “Lipid Nanotechnology”.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013 (14): 4242–4282. doi:10.3390/ijms14024242. PMC 3588097. PMID 23429269.
51. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2010) “Virus” Archived 2011-10-16 at the Wayback Machine in Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.
eds. S. Draggan and C. Cleveland
52. ^ Kubik T, Bogunia-Kubik K, Sugisaka M (2005). “Nanotechnology on duty in medical applications”. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 6 (1): 17–33. doi:10.2174/1389201053167248. PMID 15727553.
53. ^ Leary, SP; Liu, CY; Apuzzo,
ML (2006). “Toward the Emergence of Nanoneurosurgery: Part III-Nanomedicine: Targeted Nanotherapy, Nanosurgery, and Progress Toward the Realization of Nanoneurosurgery”. Neurosurgery. 58 (6): 1009–1026. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000217016.79256.16. PMID
16723880. S2CID 33235348.
54. ^ Cavalcanti, A.; Shirinzadeh, B.; Freitas, R.; Kretly, L. (2007). “Medical Nanorobot Architecture Based on Nanobioelectronics”. Recent Patents on Nanotechnology. 1 (1): 1–10. doi:10.2174/187221007779814745. PMID 19076015.
55. ^ Boukallel M, Gauthier M, Dauge M, Piat E, Abadie J (2007). “Smart microrobots for mechanical cell characterization and cell convoying” (PDF). IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54 (8): 1536–40. doi:10.1109/TBME.2007.891171. PMID 17694877.
56. ^ “International Perspective on Government Nanotechnology Funding in 2005” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31.
57. ^ Jump up to:a b Lapshin, R. V. (2004). “Feature-oriented scanning methodology for probe microscopy
and nanotechnology” (PDF). Nanotechnology. 15 (9): 1135–1151. Bibcode:2004Nanot..15.1135L. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/15/9/006. Archived from the original on 2013-09-09.
58. ^ Jump up to:a b Lapshin, R. V. (2011). “Feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy”.
In H. S. Nalwa (ed.). Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (PDF). Vol. 14. USA: American Scientific Publishers. pp. 105–115. ISBN 978-1-58883-163-7. Archived from the original on 2013-09-09.
59. ^ Kafshgari, MH; Voelcker, NH; Harding,
FJ (2015). “Applications of zero-valent silicon nanostructures in biomedicine”. Nanomedicine (Lond). 10 (16): 2553–71. doi:10.2217/nnm.15.91. PMID 26295171.
60. ^ Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T. (2011-01-01).
“Transferosomes – A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation”. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research. 2 (3): 138–143. doi:10.4103/2231-4040.85524. PMC 3217704. PMID 22171309.
61. ^ Apply nanotech to up
industrial, agri output Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Star (Bangladesh), 17 April 2012.
62. ^ Kurtoglu M. E.; Longenbach T.; Reddington P.; Gogotsi Y. (2011). “Effect of Calcination Temperature and Environment on Photocatalytic
and Mechanical Properties of Ultrathin Sol–Gel Titanium Dioxide Films”. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 94 (4): 1101–1108. doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2010.04218.x.
63. ^ “Nanotechnology Consumer Products”. nnin.org. 2010. Archived from the
original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
64. ^ Nano in computing and electronics Archived 2011-11-14 at the Wayback Machine at NanoandMe.org
65. ^ Mayer, B.; Janker, L.; Loitsch, B.; Treu, J.; Kostenbader, T.; Lichtmannecker,
S.; Reichert, T.; Morkötter, S.; Kaniber, M.; Abstreiter, G.; Gies, C.; Koblmüller, G.; Finley, J. J. (2015). “Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon”. Nano Letters. 16 (1): 152–156. Bibcode:2016NanoL..16..152M. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b03404.
66. ^ Nano in medicine Archived 2011-11-14 at the Wayback Machine at NanoandMe.org
67. ^ Nano in transport Archived 2011-10-29 at the Wayback Machine at NanoandMe.org
68. ^ Catalytic Converter at Wikipedia.org
69. ^ How Catalytic
Converters Work Archived 2014-12-10 at the Wayback Machine at howstuffworks.com
70. ^ Nanotechnology to provide cleaner diesel engines Archived 2014-12-14 at the Wayback Machine. RDmag.com. September 2014
71. ^ Cassidy, John W. (2014). “Nanotechnology
in the Regeneration of Complex Tissues”. Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights. 5: 25–35. doi:10.4137/BTRI.S12331. PMC 4471123. PMID 26097381.
72. ^ Cassidy, J. W.; Roberts, J. N.; Smith, C. A.; Robertson, M.; White, K.; Biggs, M. J.; Oreffo, R.
O. C.; Dalby, M. J. (2014). “Osteogenic lineage restriction by osteoprogenitors cultured on nanometric grooved surfaces: The role of focal adhesion maturation”. Acta Biomaterialia. 10 (2): 651–660. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.11.008. PMC 3907683. PMID
24252447. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30.
73. ^ Amir, Y.; Ben-Ishay, E.; Levner, D.; Ittah, S.; Abu-Horowitz, A.; Bachelet, I. (2014). “Universal computing by DNA origami robots in a living animal”. Nature Nanotechnology. 9 (5): 353–357.
Bibcode:2014NatNa…9..353A. doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.58. PMC 4012984. PMID 24705510.
74. ^ Jump up to:a b “History: 2010s”. SK Hynix. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
75. ^ “16/12nm Technology”. TSMC. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
76. ^ Jump up to:a b “Samsung
Mass Producing 128Gb 3-bit MLC NAND Flash”. Tom’s Hardware. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
77. ^ Jump up to:a b “7nm Technology”. TSMC. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
78. ^ Shilov, Anton. “Samsung Completes Development of 5nm EUV Process Technology”.
www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
79. ^ Armasu, Lucian (11 January 2019), “Samsung Plans Mass Production of 3nm GAAFET Chips in 2021”, www.tomshardware.com
80. ^ “CDC – Nanotechnology – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic”. National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. June 15, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
81. ^ “CDC – NIOSH Publications and Products – Filling the Knowledge Gaps for Safe Nanotechnology in the Workplace”.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. November 7, 2012. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB2013101. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
82. ^ Lubick, N; Betts, Kellyn (2008). “Silver socks have cloudy lining”.
Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (11): 3910. Bibcode:2008EnST…42.3910L. doi:10.1021/es0871199. PMID 18589943. S2CID 26887347.
83. ^ Murray R.G.E. (1993) Advances in Bacterial Paracrystalline Surface Layers. T. J. Beveridge, S. F. Koval (Eds.).
Plenum Press. ISBN 978-0-306-44582-8. pp. 3–9.
84. ^ Jump up to:a b Harthorn, Barbara Herr (January 23, 2009) “People in the US and the UK show strong similarities in their attitudes toward nanotechnologies” Archived 2011-08-23 at the Wayback Machine.
85. ^ Testimony of David Rejeski for U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Archived 2008-04-08 at the Wayback Machine Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. Retrieved on 2008-3-7.
86. ^ DelVecchio,
Rick (November 24, 2006) Berkeley considering need for nano safety Archived 2008-04-09 at the Wayback Machine. sfgate.com
87. ^ Bray, Hiawatha (January 26, 2007) Cambridge considers nanotech curbs – City may mimic Berkeley bylaws Archived 2008-05-11
at the Wayback Machine. boston.com
88. ^ Recommendations for a Municipal Health & Safety Policy for Nanomaterials: A Report to the Cambridge City Manager Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine. nanolawreport.com. July 2008.
89. ^ Byrne, J.
D.; Baugh, J. A. (2008). “The significance of nanoparticles in particle-induced pulmonary fibrosis”. McGill Journal of Medicine. 11 (1): 43–50. PMC 2322933. PMID 18523535.
90. ^ Elder, A. (2006). Tiny Inhaled Particles Take Easy Route from Nose
to Brain. urmc.rochester.edu Archived September 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
91. ^ Wu, J; Liu, W; Xue, C; Zhou, S; Lan, F; Bi, L; Xu, H; Yang, X; Zeng, FD (2009). “Toxicity and penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin
after subchronic dermal exposure”. Toxicology Letters. 191 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.05.020. PMID 19501137.
92. ^ Jonaitis, TS; Card, JW; Magnuson, B (2010). “Concerns regarding nano-sized titanium dioxide dermal penetration and toxicity
study”. Toxicology Letters. 192 (2): 268–9. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.10.007. PMID 19836437.
93. ^ Schneider, Andrew (March 24, 2010) “Amid Nanotech’s Dazzling Promise, Health Risks Grow” Archived 2010-03-26 at the Wayback Machine. AOL News
Weiss, R. (2008). Effects of Nanotubes May Lead to Cancer, Study Says. Archived 2011-06-29 at the Wayback Machine
95. ^ Paull, J. & Lyons, K. (2008). “Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics” (PDF). Journal of Organic Systems. 3: 3–22. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 2011-07-18.
96. ^ Smith, Rebecca (August 19, 2009). “Nanoparticles used in paint could kill, research suggests”. Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
97. ^ Nanofibres
‘may pose health risk’ Archived 2012-08-25 at the Wayback Machine. BBC. 2012-08-24
98. ^ Schinwald, A.; Murphy, F. A.; Prina-Mello, A.; Poland, C. A.; Byrne, F.; Movia, D.; Glass, J. R.; Dickerson, J. C.; Schultz, D. A.; Jeffree, C. E.; MacNee,
W.; Donaldson, K. (2012). “The Threshold Length for Fiber-Induced Acute Pleural Inflammation: Shedding Light on the Early Events in Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma”. Toxicological Sciences. 128 (2): 461–470. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs171. PMID 22584686.
Is Chronic Inflammation the Key to Unlocking the Mysteries of Cancer? Archived 2012-11-04 at the Wayback Machine Scientific American. 2008-11-09
100. ^ Kevin Rollins (Nems Mems Works, LLC). “Nanobiotechnology Regulation: A Proposal for Self-Regulation
with Limited Oversight”. Volume 6 – Issue 2. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
101. ^ Bowman D, Hodge G (2006). “Nanotechnology: Mapping the Wild Regulatory Frontier”. Futures. 38 (9): 1060–1073. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2006.02.017.
Davies, J. C. (2008). Nanotechnology Oversight: An Agenda for the Next Administration Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine.
103. ^ Rowe, G. (2005). “Difficulties in evaluating public engagement initiatives: Reflections on an evaluation of
the UK GM Nation? Public debate about transgenic crops”. Public Understanding of Science (Submitted manuscript). 14 (4): 331–352. doi:10.1177/0963662505056611. S2CID 144572555.
104. ^ Maynard, A.Testimony by Dr. Andrew Maynard for the U.S. House
Committee on Science and Technology. (2008-4-16). Retrieved on 2008-11-24. Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
105. ^ Faunce, T.; Murray, K.; Nasu, H.; Bowman, D. (2008). “Sunscreen Safety: The Precautionary Principle, the Australian Therapeutic
Goods Administration and Nanoparticles in Sunscreens”. NanoEthics. 2 (3): 231–240. doi:10.1007/s11569-008-0041-z. S2CID 55719697.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ana_cotta/2257649769/’]