In order to program and control the flow of information in the Internet of things, a predicted architectural direction is being called BPM Everywhere which is a blending of
traditional process management with process mining and special capabilities to automate the control of large numbers of coordinated devices.
 Industrial applications Main article: Industrial internet of things Also known as IIoT, industrial IoT devices acquire and analyze data from connected equipment,
operational technology (OT), locations, and people.
In this context, three main areas are being covered in literature: • The integration of the Internet with building energy management systems in order to create energy-efficient
and IOT-driven “smart buildings”.
 Development of resource-constrained devices connected to the Internet also means that other applications like earthquake or tsunami early-warning systems can also be
used by emergency services to provide more effective aid.
 These sensors create a network of intelligent sensors that are able to collect, process, transfer, and analyze valuable information in different environments, such as
connecting in-home monitoring devices to hospital-based systems.
 Consumer applications A growing portion of IoT devices are created for consumer use, including connected vehicles, home automation, wearable technology, connected
health, and appliances with remote monitoring capabilities.
 Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), independently and collectively
enable the Internet of things.
 • The integration of smart devices in the built environment and how they might be used in future applications.
Modern IoT products and solutions in the marketplace use a variety of different technologies to support such context-aware automation, but more sophisticated forms of intelligence
are requested to permit sensor units and intelligent cyber-physical systems to be deployed in real environments.
 These devices allow for remote control by users, or central management via a cloud-based interface, and enable functions like scheduling (e.g., remotely powering on or
off heating systems, controlling ovens, changing lighting conditions etc.).
The app is connected to 10,000 sensors that enable services like parking search, environmental monitoring, digital city agenda, and more.
 Transportation Digital variable speed-limit sign The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing across various transportation
The use of global internet data networks such as Sigfox, combined with long-life batteries, and microelectronics allows the engine rooms, bilge, and batteries to be constantly
monitored and reported to a connected Android & Apple applications for example.
 IoMT in the insurance industry provides access to better and new types of dynamic information.
 Smart home technology applied in this way can provide users with more freedom and a higher quality of life.
 The smart grid is a utility-side IoT application; systems gather and act on energy and power-related information to improve the efficiency of the production and distribution
 Network architecture The Internet of things requires huge scalability in the network space to handle the surge of devices.
 Smart home IoT devices are a part of the larger concept of home automation, which can include lighting, heating and air conditioning, media and security systems
and camera systems.
 Building and home automation IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types
of buildings (e.g., public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential) in home automation and building automation systems.
Integrating advanced machine learning algorithms including deep learning into IoT devices is an active research area to make smart objects closer to reality.
Peterson believed that medical devices and industrial controls would become dominant applications of the technology.
 According to Lewis, “The Internet of Things, or IoT, is the integration of people, processes and technology with connectable devices and sensors to enable remote monitoring,
status, manipulation and evaluation of trends of such devices.”
 Using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) Internet-connected devices, electric utilities not only collect data from end-users, but also manage distribution automation
devices like transformers.
 The wide range of applications for IoT technology mean that the specifics can be very different from one device to the next but there are basic characteristics shared
 Digital control systems to automate process controls, operator tools and service information systems to optimize plant safety and security are within the purview of the
 The relationship between the technology developers and governments who manage the city’s assets, is key to provide open access to resources to users in an efficient
“ Moreover, the use of mobile devices to support medical follow-up led to the creation of ‘m-health’, used analyzed health statistics.
 In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the “smart home”, including devices and appliances (such as lighting
fixtures, thermostats, home security systems, cameras, and other home appliances) that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers.
 IoT devices can also be used to control critical infrastructure like bridges to provide access to ships.
Usage of IoT devices for monitoring and operating infrastructure is likely to improve incident management and emergency response coordination, and quality of service, up-times
and reduce costs of operation in all infrastructure related areas.
With billions of devices being added to the Internet space, IPv6 will play a major role in handling the network layer scalability.
 Building on the Internet of things, the web of things is an architecture for the application layer of the Internet of things looking at the convergence of data from
IoT devices into Web applications to create innovative use-cases.
 Applications The extensive set of applications for IoT devices is often divided into consumer, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure spaces.
 Network control and management of manufacturing equipment, asset and situation management, or manufacturing process control allow IoT to be used for industrial applications
and smart manufacturing.
Autonomous behavior through the collection and reasoning of context information as well as the object’s ability to detect changes in the environment (faults affecting sensors)
and introduce suitable mitigation measures constitutes a major research trend, clearly needed to provide credibility to the IoT technology.
 In the future, the Internet of things may be a non-deterministic and open network in which auto-organized or intelligent entities (web services, SOA components)
and virtual objects (avatars) will be interoperable and able to act independently (pursuing their own objectives or shared ones) depending on the context, circumstances or environments.
For instance, the government provides tax incentives and cheap rent, improves public transports, and offers an environment where start-up companies, creative industries, and
multinationals may co-create, share a common infrastructure and labor markets, and take advantage of locally embedded technologies, production process, and transaction costs.
The IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced
The Internet of things (IoT) describes physical objects (or groups of such objects) with sensors, processing ability, software, and other technologies that connect and exchange
data with other devices and systems over the Internet or other communications networks.
 Ocean of Things The Ocean of Things project is a DARPA-led program designed to establish an Internet of things across large ocean areas for the purposes of
collecting, monitoring, and analyzing environmental and vessel activity data.
 At that point, he viewed radio-frequency identification (RFID) as essential to the Internet of things, which would allow computers to manage all individual things.
 The main theme of the Internet of things is to embed short-range mobile transceivers in various gadgets and daily necessities to enable new forms of communication
between people and things, and between things themselves.
The governments play key roles in smart city projects as changes in policies will help cities to implement the IoT which provides effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of
the resources that are being used.
 In addition to the commercial systems, there are many non-proprietary, open source ecosystems; including Home Assistant, OpenHAB and Domoticz.
 Long-term benefits could include energy savings by automatically ensuring lights and electronics are turned off or by making the residents in the home aware of usage.
already integrate Internet connectivity, which can allow them to communicate with utilities not only to balance power generation but also helps optimize the energy consumption
as a whole.
Limited processing power is a key attribute of IoT devices as their purpose is to supply data about physical objects while remaining autonomous.
 The field has evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, including ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, increasingly powerful embedded systems, and
Dynamic interaction between these components of a transport system enables inter- and intra-vehicular communication, smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll
collection systems, logistics and fleet management, vehicle control, safety, and road assistance.
“ Specialized sensors can also be equipped within living spaces to monitor the health and general well-being of senior citizens, while also ensuring that proper treatment
is being administered and assisting people to regain lost mobility via therapy as well.
 Even areas such as waste management can benefit from automation and optimization that could be brought in by the IoT.
City context information is used in this deployment so as to benefit merchants through a spark deals mechanism based on city behavior that aims at maximizing the impact of
 Edge Gateway layer is also required to give a common view of the devices to the upper layers to facilitate in easier management.
 In 1994, Reza Raji described the concept in IEEE Spectrum as “[moving] small packets of data to a large set of nodes, so as to integrate and automate everything from
home appliances to entire factories”.
 The Edge Gateway layer consists of sensor data aggregation systems called Edge Gateways that provide functionality, such as pre-processing of the data, securing connectivity
to cloud, using systems such as WebSockets, the event hub, and, even in some cases, edge analytics or fog computing.
 The edge devices’ computation power to analyse and process data is extremely limited.
 History The main concept of a network of smart devices was discussed as early as 1982, with a modified Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming
the first ARPANET-connected appliance, able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold or not.
Remote monitoring is made possible through the connection of powerful wireless solutions.
IoT devices in this application typically span a large geographic area and can also be mobile.
 The term “Enterprise IoT” refers to devices used in business and corporate settings.
 The term “Internet of Packaging” has been coined to describe applications in which unique identifiers are used, to automate supply chains, and are scanned on large scale
by consumers to access digital content.
 Also, the same implementation can be carried out for automated record updates of asset placement in industrial storage units as the size of the assets can vary from a
small screw to the whole motor spare part, and misplacement of such assets can cause a loss of manpower time and money.
 A smart home or automated home could be based on a platform or hubs that control smart devices and appliances.
These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner’s specific disabilities.
Ambient intelligence and autonomous control do not necessarily require Internet structures, either.
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