Others Male catkin of Salix cinerea with bee Willow tree in spring, England Willow tree with woodbine honeysuckle Art installation “Sandworm” in the Wenduine
Dunes, Belgium, made entirely out of willow • Warfare: Surprisingly, throughout World War II, willows were a British strategic material.
 In his novel The Mysterious Island (1875), the French novelist Jules Verne outlined the state of scientific knowledge concerning medicinal uses of willow when one of
his characters, Herbert (Harbert) Brown, was suffering from a fever induced by a bullet wound: “The bark of the willow has, indeed, been justly considered as a succedaneum for Peruvian bark, as has also that of the horse-chestnut tree, the
leaf of the holly, the snake-root, etc.
 It may often be based on the belief that willow actually contains aspirin.
 A small number of willow species were widely planted in Australia, notably as erosion-control measures along watercourses.
 The generic name Salix comes from Latin and was already used by the Romans for various types of willow.
 Willow may also be grown to produce charcoal.
; Type species: Salix alba L.; Diversity: About 350 species Description Willows all have abundant watery bark sap, which is heavily charged with salicylic acid, soft,
usually pliant, tough wood, slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots.
Taoist witches also use a small carving made from willow wood for communicating with the spirits of the dead.
One modern field guide claims that Native Americans across the Americas relied on the willow as a staple of their medical treatments, using the bark to treat ailments such
as sore throat and tuberculosis, and further alleging that “Several references mention chewing willow bark as an analgesic for headache and other pain, apparently presaging the development of aspirin in the late 1800s.
• Food: Poor people at one time often ate willow catkins that had been cooked to form a mash.
Since their presence may not always be welcome, willow branches keep them away.
Some of humans’ earliest manufactured items may have been made from willow.
The wood was used by some Native American tribes to start fires by friction, the shoots to weave baskets, and both the branches and stems to build various items including
 The first lasting evidence that salicylate, from willow and other plant species, might have real medicinal uses came in 1876, when the Scottish physician Thomas MacLagan
experimented with salicin as a treatment for acute rheumatism, with considerable success, as he reported in The Lancet.
Willows are often planted on the borders of streams so their interlacing roots may protect the bank against the action of the water.
 Nicholas Culpeper, in The Complete Herbal, gives many uses for willow, including to staunch wounds, to “stay the heat of lust” in man or woman, and to provoke
urine (“if stopped”), but he makes no mention of any supposed analgesic properties.
 There are now many papers, books and articles repeating the claim that the ancients used willow for pain relief, and numerous willow-based products can be purchased for
“ Herbal uses of willow have continued into modern times.
William Turner’s account, written about 1597, focuses on the ability of the leaves and bark to “stay the spitting of blood, and all other fluxes of blood,” if boiled in wine
and drunk, but adds a treatment for fever, saying: “the green boughs with the leaves may very well be brought into chambers and set about the beds of those that be sick of fevers, for they do mightily cool the heat of the air, which thing
is a wonderful refreshing to the sick patients.
Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea) rarely exceeds 6 centimetres (2+1⁄2
in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground.
 He had noticed the willow bark tasted bitter, like ‘Peruvian Bark’ (cinchona), which was used to treat fevers, and he speculated that the willow would have a similar
Willows are among the earliest woody plants to leaf out in spring and the last to drop their leaves in autumn.
Hybrids and cultivars Weeping willow, an example of a hybrid between two types of willow Willows are very cross-compatible, and numerous hybrids occur, both naturally
and in cultivation.
 “Green Willow” is a Japanese ghost story in which a young samurai falls in love with a woman called Green Willow who has a close spiritual connection with a willow tree.
On some species, however, they are small, inconspicuous, and caducous (soon falling).
 Cultivation Almost all willows take root very readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground.
 Interpreting Mesopotamian cuneiform texts is a challenge, especially when looking for something as specific as a species of plant being used to treat a recognisable
Willows, also called sallows and osiers, of the genus Salix, comprise around 350 species (plus numerous hybrids) of typically deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on
moist soils in cold and temperate regions.
 In traditional pictures of the Goddess of Mercy Guanyin, she is often shown seated on a rock with a willow branch in a vase of water at her side.
Usually, the bud scale is fused into a cap-like shape, but in some species it wraps around and the edges overlap.
 • Art: Willow is used to make charcoal (for drawing) as well as living sculptures, woven from live willow rods into shapes such as domes and tunnels.
Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (from Old English sealh,
related to the Latin word salix, willow).
One of the forms of Welsh coracle boat traditionally uses willow in the framework.
His recommendation to use the burnt ashes of willow bark, mixed with vinegar, to “take away warts, corns, and superfluous flesh,” seems to correspond with modern uses of salicylic
Pests and diseases Willow species are hosts to more than a hundred aphid species, belonging to Chaitophorus and other genera, forming large colonies to feed on plant
juices, on the underside of leaves in particular.
Willow stems are also used to create garden features, such as decorative panels and obelisks.
Over several years he tested it on as many as fifty patients and found it to be highly effective (especially when mixed with cinchona).
The second is as part of a treatment for the “Great Debility,” when “rush from the green willow tree” is combined with ass’s semen, fresh bread, herbs of the field, figs,
grapes and wine.
 Modern research suggests that only the mildest analgesic effect could be derived from the use of willow extract, and even that may be due to flavonoids and polyphenols
as much as salicylic acid.
Uses The Quinault people made the bark into a twine which sometimes served as harpoon line.
Rust, caused by fungi of genus Melampsora, is known to damage leaves of willows, covering them with orange spots.
The seeds are tiny, plentiful, carried by wind and water, and viable only for a few days; they require warm and moist conditions to take root.
 The seeds of the Haluppu-tree were recommended in the Sumerian narrative of Gilgameš, Enkidu and the Nether World as treatment for infertility, but the “Haluppu-tree”
could have been oak, poplar or willow.
Willow branches are also put up on gates and/or front doors, which they believe help ward off the evil spirits that wander on Qingming.
In the story, Herbert is treated with powdered willow bark to no effect, and is saved when a supply of quinine is discovered.
Hans Christian Andersen wrote a story called “Under the Willow Tree” (1853) in which children ask questions of a tree they call “willow-father”, paired with another entity
 Corythucha elegans, the willow lace bug, is a bug species in the family Tingidae found on willows in North America.
One famous example of such growth from cuttings involves the poet Alexander Pope, who begged a twig from a parcel tied with twigs sent from Spain to Lady Suffolk.
Willow trees are also quite prevalent in folklore and myths.
 The willow is a famous subject in many East Asian nations’ cultures, particularly in pen and ink paintings from China and Japan.
Many catchment management authorities are removing and replacing them with native trees.
Willow stems are used to weave baskets and three-dimensional sculptures of animals and other figures.
The roots are often larger than the stem which grows from them.
 Christian churches in northwestern Europe and Ukraine and Bulgaria often used willow branches in place of palms in the ceremonies on Palm Sunday.
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