A report by the Intelligence and Security Committee (ISC) in 2015 revealed that a small number of staff at UK intelligence agencies had been found to misuse their surveillance
powers, in one case leading to the dismissal of a member of staff at GCHQ, although there were no laws in place at the time to make these abuses a criminal offence.
The principal of these is with the United States (National Security Agency), Canada (Communications Security Establishment), Australia (Australian Signals Directorate) and
New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau), through the mechanism of the UK-US Security Agreement, a broad intelligence-sharing agreement encompassing a range of intelligence collection methods.
 Post Cold War 1990s: Post-Cold War restructuring The Intelligence Services Act 1994 formalised the activities of the intelligence agencies for the first time,
defining their purpose, and the British Parliament’s Intelligence and Security Committee was given a remit to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the three intelligence agencies.
Since the 2013 global surveillance disclosures, large US technology companies have improved security and become less co-operative with foreign intelligence agencies, including
those of the UK, generally requiring a US court order before disclosing data.
 During the introduction of the Intelligence Agency Act in late 1993, the former Prime Minister Jim Callaghan had described GCHQ as a “full-blown bureaucracy”, adding
that future bodies created to provide oversight of the intelligence agencies should “investigate whether all the functions that GCHQ carries out today are still necessary.
 However, the Tribunal stated in February 2015 that one particular aspect, the data-sharing arrangement that allowed UK Intelligence services to request data from the
US surveillance programmes Prism and Upstream, had been in contravention of human rights law prior to this until two paragraphs of additional information, providing details about the procedures and safeguards, were disclosed to the public
in December 2014.
 Soon after becoming Director of GCHQ in 2014, Robert Hannigan wrote an article in the Financial Times on the topic of internet surveillance, stating that “however much
[large US technology companies] may dislike it, they have become the command and control networks of choice for terrorists and criminals” and that GCHQ and its sister agencies “cannot tackle these challenges at scale without greater support
from the private sector”, arguing that most internet users “would be comfortable with a better and more sustainable relationship between the [intelligence] agencies and the tech companies”.
The closed hearing found the government in breach of its internal surveillance policies in accessing and retaining the communications of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal
Rights and the Legal Resources Centre in South Africa.
 Legal basis GCHQ’s legal basis is enshrined in the Intelligence Services Act 1994 Section 3 as follows: (1) There shall continue to be a Government Communications Headquarters
under the authority of the Secretary of State; and, subject to subsection (2) below, its functions shall be— (a) to monitor or interfere with electromagnetic, acoustic and other emissions and any equipment producing such emissions and to obtain
and provide information derived from or related to such emissions or equipment and from encrypted material; and (b) to provide advice and assistance about— (i) languages, including terminology used for technical matters, and (ii) cryptography
and other matters relating to the protection of information and other material, to the armed forces of the Crown, to Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom or to a Northern Ireland Department or to any other organisation which is determined
for the purposes of this section in such manner as may be specified by the Prime Minister.
(3) In this Act, the expression “GCHQ” refers to the Government Communications Headquarters and to any unit or part of a unit of the armed forces of the Crown which is for
the time being required by the Secretary of State to assist the Government Communications Headquarters in carrying out its functions.
 GCHQ has also had access to the US internet monitoring programme PRISM from at least as far back as June 2010.
 Security mission As well as a mission to gather intelligence, GCHQ has for a long-time had a corresponding mission to assist in the protection of the British government’s
It absorbed and replaced CESG as well as activities that had previously existed outside GCHQ: the Centre for Cyber Assessment (CCA), Computer Emergency Response Team UK (CERT
UK) and the cyber-related responsibilities of the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI).
In 2013, GCHQ received considerable media attention when the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden revealed that the agency was in the process of collecting
all online and telephone data in the UK via the Tempora programme.
 LCSA From 1952 to 1954, the intelligence mission of GCHQ relocated to Cheltenham; the Security section remained at Eastcote, and in March 1954 became a separate,
independent organisation: the London Communications Security Agency (LCSA), which in 1958 was renamed to the London Communications-Electronic Security Agency (LCESA).
 Following the Second World War, US and British intelligence have shared information as part of the UKUSA Agreement.
 A no-strike agreement was eventually negotiated and the ban lifted by the incoming Labour government in 1997, with the Government Communications Group of the Public and
Commercial Services Union (PCS) being formed to represent interested employees at all grades.
 History Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) See also: Second World War activities of GC&CS referred to as ‘Ultra’ During the First World War, the British
Army and Royal Navy had separate signals intelligence agencies, MI1b and NID25 (initially known as Room 40) respectively.
(2) The functions referred to in subsection (1)(a) above shall be exercisable only— (a) in the interests of national security, with particular reference to the defence and
foreign policies of Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom; or (b) in the interests of the economic well-being of the United Kingdom in relation to the actions or intentions of persons outside the British Islands; or (c) in support
of the prevention or detection of serious crime.
One of the major reasons for selecting Cheltenham was that the town had been the location of the headquarters of the United States Army Services of Supply for the European
Theater during the War, which built up a telecommunications infrastructure in the region to carry out its logistics tasks.
“ In late 1993 civil servant Michael Quinlan advised a deep review of the work of GCHQ following the conclusion of his “Review of Intelligence Requirements and Resources”,
which had imposed a 3% cut on the agency.
 This complements independent reports by the Interception of Communications Commissioner, and a special report made by the Intelligence and Security Committee
of Parliament; although several shortcomings and potential improvements to both oversight and the legislative framework were highlighted.
 However the head of the UK technology industry group techUK rejected these claims, stating that they understood the issues but that disclosure obligations “must be
based upon a clear and transparent legal framework and effective oversight rather than, as suggested, a deal between the industry and government”.
 The public spotlight fell on GCHQ in late 2003 and early 2004 following the sacking of Katharine Gun after she leaked to The Observer a confidential email from agents
at the United States’ National Security Agency addressed to GCHQ agents about the wiretapping of UN delegates in the run-up to the 2003 Iraq war.
 However, surveillance of Russian agents did pick up contacts made by Trump’s campaign team in the run-up to his election, which were passed on to US agencies.
 In the same month NBC and The Intercept, based on documents released by Snowden, revealed the Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group and the Computer Network Exploitation
units within GCHQ.
 Trade union disputes NUCPS banner on march in Cheltenham 1992 Main articles: Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service and GCHQ trade union
ban In 1984, GCHQ was the centre of a political row when, in the wake of strikes which affected Sigint collection, the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher prohibited its employees from belonging to a trade union.
By 1922, the main focus of GC&CS was on diplomatic traffic, with “no service traffic ever worth circulating” and so, at the initiative of Lord Curzon, it was transferred
from the Admiralty to the Foreign Office.
 Oversight See also: Mass surveillance in the United Kingdom The Prime Minister nominates cross-party Members of Parliament to an Intelligence and Security
The Joint Technical Language Service (JTLS) is a small department and cross-government resource responsible for mainly technical language support and translation and interpreting
services across government departments.
 The tenure of Omand also saw the construction of a modern new headquarters, intended to consolidate the two old sites at Oakley and Benhall into a single, more open-plan
 Abuses Despite the inherent secrecy around much of GCHQ’s work, investigations carried out by the UK government after the Snowden disclosures have admitted various
abuses by the security services.
 2000s: Coping with the Internet See also: Global surveillance and Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present) At the end of 2003, GCHQ moved in to its new building.
 Hurn’s report recommended a cut of £100 million in GCHQ’s budget; such a large reduction had not been suffered by any British intelligence agency since the end of World
However, in May 1927, during a row over clandestine Soviet support for the General Strike and the distribution of subversive propaganda, Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin made
details from the decrypts public.
The remit of the Committee includes oversight of intelligence and security activities and reports are made directly to Parliament.
 Its public function was “to advise as to the security of codes and cyphers used by all Government departments and to assist in their provision”, but also had a secret
directive to “study the methods of cypher communications used by foreign powers”.
 The remit of the JTLS has expanded in the ensuing years to cover technical language support and interpreting and translation services across the UK Government and to
local public sector services in Gloucestershire and surrounding counties.
During the early Cold War, the remnants of the British Empire provided a global network of ground stations which were a major contribution to the UKUSA Agreement; the US regarded
RAF Little Sai Wan in Hong Kong as the most valuable of these.
GCHQ transformed itself accordingly, including greatly expanded Public Relations and Legal departments, and adopting public education in cyber security as an important part
of its remit.
Government Communications Headquarters, commonly known as GCHQ, is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information
assurance (IA) to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
 In March 2010, GCHQ was criticised by the Intelligence and Security Committee for problems with its IT security practices and failing to meet its targets for work targeted
against cyber attacks.
 CESG continued as the UK National Technical Authority for information assurance, including cryptography.
In 1965 a Foreign Office review found that 11,500 staff were involved in SIGINT collection (8,000 GCHQ staff and 3,500 military personnel), exceeding the size of the Diplomatic
 The objectives of GCHQ were defined as working as “in the interests of national security, with particular reference to the defence and foreign policies of His Majesty’s
government; in the interests of the economic wellbeing of the United Kingdom; and in support of the prevention and the detection of serious crime”.
This was Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service  AC 374 (often known simply as the “GCHQ case”).
The principal aspect of this is that GCHQ and its US equivalent, the National Security Agency (NSA), share technologies, infrastructure and information.
There are two main components of the GCHQ, the Composite Signals Organisation (CSO), which is responsible for gathering information, and the National Cyber Security Centre
(NCSC), which is responsible for securing the UK’s own communications.
In this case, a prerogative Order in Council had been used by the prime minister (who is the Minister for the Civil Service) to ban trade union activities by civil servants
working at GCHQ.
The monitoring stations were largely run by inexpensive National Service recruits, but when this ended in the early 1960s, the increased cost of civilian employees caused
Reaction to the Suez War led to the eviction of GCHQ from several of its best foreign SIGINT collection sites, including the new Perkar, Ceylon site and RAF Habbaniya, Iraq.
 David Omand became the Director of GCHQ in 1996, and greatly restructured the agency in the face of new and changing targets and rapid technological change.
 In 2015, documents obtained by The Intercept from US National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed that GCHQ had carried out a mass-surveillance operation,
codenamed KARMA POLICE, since about 2008.
When the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) was created in 1919, its overt task was providing security advice.
 A number of mass national one-day strikes were held to protest this decision, claimed by some as the first step to wider bans on trade unions.
 Sinclair merged staff from NID25 and MI1b into the new organisation, which initially consisted of around 25–30 officers and a similar number of clerical staff.
 GCHQ had a very low profile in the media until 1983 when the trial of Geoffrey Prime, a KGB mole within it, created considerable media interest.
 Public key encryption In late 1969 the concept for public-key encryption was developed and proven by James H. Ellis, who had worked for CESG (and before it, CESD)
GCHQ was originally established after the First World War as the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) and was known under that name until 1946.
 Operations that used GCHQ’s intelligence-gathering capabilities in the 1990s included the monitoring of communications of Iraqi soldiers in the Gulf War, of dissident
republican terrorists and the Real IRA, of the various factions involved in the Yugoslav Wars, and of the criminal Kenneth Noye.
The growing use of the Internet, together with its inherent insecurities, meant that the communications traffic of private citizens were becoming inextricably mixed with those
of their targets and openness in the handling of this issue was becoming essential to their credibility as an organisation.
 The UK also has an independent Intelligence Services Commissioner and Interception of Communications Commissioner, both of whom are former senior judges.
 Later that year, a ruling by the Investigatory Powers Tribunal found that GCHQ acted unlawfully in conducting surveillance on two human rights organisations.
 Post Second World War GC&CS was renamed the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) in June 1946.
 Furthermore, the IPT ruled that the legislative framework in the United Kingdom does not permit mass surveillance and that while GCHQ collects and analyses data
in bulk, it does not practice mass surveillance.
Relationships are alleged to include shared collection methods, such as the system described in the popular media as ECHELON, as well as analysed product.
 At another IPT case in 2015, GCHQ conceded that “from January 2010, the regime for the interception/obtaining, analysis, use, disclosure and destruction of legally privileged
material has not been in accordance with the law for the purposes of Article 8(2) of the European convention on human rights and was accordingly unlawful”.
[‘1. Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament “Annual Report 2016–2017” Archived 9 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, page 84. House of Commons (20 December 2017). Retrieved 1 June 2018.
2. ^ “Financial Statement 2017-18” (PDF). Security
and Intelligence Agencies. p. 13. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
3. ^ GCHQ – Welcome to GCHQ, Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
4. ^ Headrick, Daniel R. (1991) The invisible Weapon: Telecommunications and International Politics
1851-1945, Oxford UP p219
5. ^ “A simple guide to GCHQ’s internet surveillance programme Tempora”. Wired UK. 24 June 2013.
6. ^ Borger, Julian (21 August 2013). “NSA files: why the Guardian in London destroyed hard drives of leaked files”. The
Guardian. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
7. ^ “MI5 veteran Jeremy Fleming named as new GCHQ head”. Sky News. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
8. ^ Aldrich, 2010, p. 565
9. ^ (secondary) Leong, Angela (2007). The Disruption of International Organised Crime:
An Analysis of Legal and Non-Legal Strategies. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-7066-7. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Ferris (2020)
11. ^ Gannon, Paul (2011). Inside Room 40: The Codebreakers of World War I. Ian Allan
Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7110-3408-2.
12. ^ Johnson, 1997, p. 27
13. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Johnson, 1997, p. 44
14. ^ Johnson, 1997, p. 45 and Kahn, 1991, p. 82; these sources give different numbers for the initial size of the GC&CS staff
Macksey, Kenneth (2003). The Searchers: How Radio Interception Changed the Course of Both World Wars. Cassell Military. p. 58. ISBN 0-304-36545-9.
16. ^ Smith, 2001, pp. 16–17
17. ^ Kahn, 1991, p. 82
18. ^ Denniston, Alastair G. (1986). “The
Government Code and Cypher School Between the Wars”. Intelligence and National Security. 1 (1): 48–70. doi:10.1080/02684528608431841.
19. ^ Smith, 2001, pp. 20–21
20. ^ Smith, 2001, pp. 18–19
21. ^ Aldrich, 2010, p. 18
22. ^ Gannon, Paul (2006).
Colossus: Bletchley Park’s Greatest Secret. Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-84354-331-2.
23. ^ Alvarez, David (2001). “Most Helpful and Cooperative: GC&CS and the Development of American Diplomatic Cryptanalysis, 1941–1942”. In Smith, Michael; Erskine,
Ralph (eds.). Action This Day: Bletchley Park from the Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer. Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0593049105.
24. ^ Erskine, Ralph; Smith, Michael, eds. (2011), The Bletchley Park Codebreakers, Biteback
Publishing Ltd, ISBN 978-1-84954-078-0
25. ^ “Mombasa was base for high-level UK espionage operation”. Coastweek. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
26. ^ Smith, Michael (1998). Station X. Channel 4 books. p.
176. ISBN 0-330-41929-3.
27. ^ “History of GCHQ Cheltenham”. GCHQ website ‘About Us’ pages. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2006.
28. ^ Dormon, Bob (24 May 2013). “INSIDE GCHQ: Welcome to Cheltenham’s cottage
industry”. The Register. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
29. ^ Murray, Craig (16 October 2007). Dirty Diplomacy. Scribner. p. 332. ISBN 978-1416548010.
30. ^ Aldrich, Richard J. (2011). GCHQ. London: Harper Press. pp. 117–118, 153, 155, 160–162, 227–228,
475. ISBN 978-0-007312-665.
31. ^ Duncan Campbell; Mark Hosenball (21 May 1976). “The Eavesdroppers” (PDF). Time Out. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
32. ^ Court ruling, “R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Hosenball”,  1 W.L.R.
766;  3 All E.R. 452. Lord Denning presiding judge, 29 March 1977.
33. ^ Aldrich, 2010, p. 382
34. ^ “EComHR Inadmissibility decision of EComHR on application no. 11603/85”. 1987.
35. ^ “EComHR Inadmissibility decision of EComHR on application
no. 11603/85 – The Facts”. para. IV
36. ^ “Union representation”. GCHQ website. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2006.
37. ^ “Sacked GCHQ workers win compensation”. BBC News. 1 February 2000. Retrieved 12 April 2006.
Jump up to:a b “ISC – About”. Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
39. ^ Jump up to:a b “Intelligence Services Act 1994”. The National Archives. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
40. ^ “Hansard: December 1993
Intelligence Services Bill”. Hansard. 9 December 1993.
41. ^ Aldrich 2010, p. 493
42. ^ Aldrich 2010, p. 494
43. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). “The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for
Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)”. MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
44. ^ Jump up to:a b c Aldrich 2010, p. 495
45. ^ Jump up to:a b Aldrich 2010, p. 505
46. ^ Jump up to:a b c Aldrich 2010, p. 496
47. ^ Aldrich 2010, p. 9
Aldrich 2010, p. 475
49. ^ Jump up to:a b Nigel West (31 August 2012). Historical Dictionary of Signals Intelligence. Scarecrow Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7391-9.
50. ^ Aldrich 2010, p. 473
51. ^ Aldrich 2010, p. 489
52. ^ “Carillion
set for growth”. BBC News. 19 September 2000.
53. ^ Aldrich, 2010, p. 521
54. ^ Campbell, Duncan (1981). “Phone tappers and the state”. New Statesman: 54.
55. ^ Aldrich, 2010, p. 471
56. ^ “‘Cavalier’ GCHQ online spy centre loses 35 laptops”.
Computerworld UK. 12 March 2010.
57. ^ The Guardian: GCHQ intercepted foreign politicians’ communications at G20 summits, 16 June 2013
58. ^ Philip Bump (21 June 2013). “The UK Tempora Program Captures Vast Amounts of Data – and Shares with NSA”.
The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
59. ^ “Statement on GCHQ’s Alleged Interception of Communications under the US PRISM Programme” (PDF). Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
“Scale and significance of NSA snooping claims”. BBC. 11 June 2013.
61. ^ Ferris (2020), Chapters 14 and 15.
62. ^ Ackerman, Spencer; Ball, James (28 February 2014). “Optic Nerve: millions of Yahoo webcam images intercepted by GCHQ”. The Guardian.
Retrieved 2 March 2014.
63. ^ “Snowden Docs: British Spies Used Sex and ‘Dirty Tricks'”. NBC News. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
64. ^ “The Snowden Files: British Spies Used Sex and ‘Dirty’ Tricks” (PDF). NBC News Investigations.
NBC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
65. ^ Robert Hannigan (3 November 2014). “The web is a terrorist’s command-and-control network of choice”. Financial Times. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
66. ^ Sam
Jones and Murad Ahmed (3 November 2014). “Tech groups aid terror, says UK spy chief”. Financial Times. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
67. ^ David Barrett (4 November 2014). “Tech giants reject GCHQ boss Robert Hannigan’s call for deal with government”.
The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
68. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ryan Gallager, Profiled: From Radio to Porn, British Spies Track Web Users’ Online Identities, The Intercept (25 September 2015).
Croft, Jane (1 December 2015) UK spy agency GCHQ admits it carries out computer hacking. Financial Times
70. ^ Farrell, Henry (16 March 2017) Sean Spicer just suggested that Obama used British intelligence to spy on Trump. Not so much. The Washington
71. ^ Blake, Aaron (16 March 2017) Sean Spicer’s angry, lonely defense of Trump’s wiretapping claim, annotated. The Washington Post
72. ^ “US makes formal apology to Britain after White House accuses GCHQ of wiretapping Trump Tower”. The
Telegraph. 17 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
73. ^ “White House apologizes to British government over spying claims”. CNN. 17 December 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
74. ^ “GCHQ dismisses ‘utterly
ridiculous’ claim it helped wiretap Trump | US news”. The Guardian. 17 March 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
75. ^ Harding, Luke; Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Hopkins, Nick (13 April 2017). “British spies were first to spot Trump team’s links with
Russia”. The Guardian. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
76. ^ “British intelligence passed Trump associates’ communications with Russians on to US counterparts”. CNN. 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
77. ^ “GCHQ (@gchq) • Instagram photos and
videos”. www.instagram.com. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
78. ^ Weaver, Matthew (31 October 2018). “GCHQ uses Instagram to ‘open up world of espionage’ to public”. The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
79. ^ Jump up to:a b Mayer, Catherine (2016).
Charles: the Heart of a King. Ebury Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-7535-5595-8. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
80. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Operational Selection Policy OSP8” (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2018.
81. ^ “Heilbronn Institute for
Mathematical Research”. University of Bristol. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
82. ^ “CESG Service Catalogue”. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
83. ^ Singh, Simon. “Unsung Heroes of Cryptography”. (originally published
in The Sunday Telegraph)
84. ^ “About us”. National Cyber Security Centre. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
85. ^ Newmark, Peter (1991). About Translation. Multilingual Matters. p. 40. ISBN 1-85359-118-1.
86. ^ Joint Technical Language Service (1983).
Russian-English Military Dictionary (English and Russian ed.). The Stationery Office. ISBN 9780112300199.
87. ^ “Government Communications Headquarters, Cheltenham; Joint Technical Language Service”. National Archives. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
Schmid, Gerhard (11 July 2001). “On the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system) – Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System, (2001/2098(INI))” (PDF). European
Parliament: Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System. p. 194. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
89. ^ “The Law”. GCHQ. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
90. ^ Jump up to:a b c “GCHQ does not breach human rights, judges rule”. BBC. 5 December 2014.
Retrieved 6 December 2014.
91. ^ “The Andrew Marr Show Interview: Theresa May, MP Home Secretary” (PDF). BBC. 23 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014. Well I guess what he’s talking about is the fact that for certain aspects and certain of
the more intrusive measures that our security service and police have available to them – i.e. Intercept, intercepting people’s telephones and some other intrusive measures – the decision is taken by the Secretary of State, predominantly me. A significant
part of my job is looking at these warrants and signing these warrants. I think it’s… Some people argue that should be to judges….I think it’s very important that actually those decisions are being taken by somebody who is democratically accountable
to the public. I think that’s an important part of our system. I think it’s a strength of our system.
92. ^ “Justice and Security Act 2013”. Legislation.co.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
93. ^ “Functions – Key role”. The Investigatory Powers
Tribunal. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
94. ^ “Intelligence Commissioners”. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
95. ^ “IPT Ruling on Interception”. GCHQ. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved
6 February 2015.
96. ^ “GCHQ censured over sharing of internet surveillance data with US”. BBC. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
97. ^ “UK-US surveillance regime was unlawful ‘for seven years'”. The Guardian. 6 February 2015. Retrieved
6 February 2015.
98. ^ “IPT rejects assertions of mass surveillance”. GCHQ. 5 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
99. ^ “List of judgments”. Investigatory Powers Tribunal. 5 December 2014. Archived
from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 1. A declaration that the regime governing the soliciting, receiving, storing and transmitting by UK authorities of private communications of individuals located in the UK which have
been obtained by US authorities pursuant to Prism and/or Upstream does not contravene Articles 8 or 10 ECHR. 2. A declaration that the regime in respect of interception under ss8(4), 15 and 16 of the Regulation of investigatory Powers Act 2000 does
not contravene Articles 8 or 10 ECHR and does not give rise to unlawful discrimination contrary to Article 14, read together with Articles 8 and/or 10 of the ECHR.
100. ^ “Statement by the Interception of Communications Commissioner’s Office (IOCCO)
on the publication of the Interception of Communications Commissioner’s Report 2014″ (PDF). 12 March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.”Report of the Interception of Communications Commissioner” (PDF).
March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
101. ^ “Privacy and Security: A modern and transparent legal framework”. Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March
2015.”UK surveillance ‘lacks transparency’, ISC report says”. BBC. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.”Intelligence and security committee report: the key findings”. The Guardian. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
102. ^ “Handful of
UK spies accessed private information inappropriately, ISC says”. The Guardian. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
103. ^ “UK: Unlawful spying on two organisations reinforces need for intelligence services to end mass surveillance”. Amnesty
International UK. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
104. ^ “Case No. IPT/13/132-9/H IN THE INVESTIGATORY POWERS TRIBUNAL” (PDF). The Investigatory Powers Tribunal. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
105. ^ “Legal privilege and
the conflicting interests of GCHQ and the IPT”. The Guardian. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
106. ^ “EU Human Rights Court Finds UK’s Intelligence Agency GCHQ Guilty of Violating Privacy Laws | 25 May 2021”. The Daily NewsBrief. 25
May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
107. ^ “British intelligence service spying on MPs in defiance of laws prohibiting it”. The Independent. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
108. ^ “Daily Hansard – Debate, 15 July 2014 : Column 697”. Parliament
of the United Kingdom. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
109. ^ Thomas Tamblyn (14 October 2015). “GCHQ Can Monitor Communications Of MPs And Peers Rules Tribunal”. Huffington Post.
110. ^ “Approved Judgment” (PDF). Investigatory Powers
Tribunal. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
111. ^ Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service  UKHL 9,  ICR 14,  IRLR 28,  3 WLR 1174,  3 All ER 935,  AC 374 (22 November 1984), House of Lords (UK)
“Life at GCHQ | GCHQ”. www.gchq-careers.co.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
113. ^ Information, Reed Business (5 April 1984). “How Cheltenham entered America’s backyard”. New Scientist. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
114. ^ “GCHQ Certified Training (GCT)”.
APMG. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
115. ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (15 November 2014). “Benedict Cumberbatch to inspire the next generation of codebreakers”. The Observer. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
116. ^ “Puzzling entrance to world of spies”. BBC News. 13
117. ^ Caroline Byrne (15 January 2000). “The Spy Who Solved Me”. ABC News. Archived from the original on 22 May 2001. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
118. ^ “Huge response to spy base puzzle”. BBC News. 10 July 2004.
119. ^ Gordon Rayner
(4 February 2016). “GCHQ quiz solution: the full answers – but can you understand them?”. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
120. ^ Ewen MacAskill (3 August 2018). “I spy … another fiendishly difficult GCHQ puzzle
book”. The Guardian.
121. ^ Bacon, Thomas (2 January 2019). “The U.K. Government’s GCHQ has issued an official response to the Dalek attack in the Doctor Who New Year Special – no need to panic!”. Screen Rant. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
Bui, Hoai-Tran (2 January 2019). “‘Resolution’ Proves All the New ‘Doctor Who’ Needed Was an Old Villain”. /Film. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
123. ^ “GCHQ sitcom Intelligence starring David Schwimmer airs on Sky One”. So Glos. 3 September 2020.
“The Undeclared War – IMDB”. IMDB. 30 June 2022.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/sweetonveg/6570546331/’]