Numerous depictions of Hermes as a shepherd god carrying a lamb on his shoulders (Hermes kriophoros) have been found throughout the Mediterranean world, and it is possible
that the iconography of Hermes as “The Good Shepherd” had an influence on early Christianity, specifically in the description of Christ as “the Good Shepherd” in the Gospel of John.
430 BC The association between Hermes and the underworld is related to his function as a god of boundaries (the boundary between life and death), but he is considered a psychopomp,
a deity who helps guide souls of the deceased to the afterlife, and his image was commonly depicted on gravestones in classical Greece.
 Beginning around the turn of the 1st century AD, a process began by which, in certain traditions Hermes became euhemerised – that is, interpreted as a historical,
mortal figure who had become divine or elevated to godlike status in legend.
Later, the epithet supplanted the original name itself and Hermes took over the roles as god of messengers, travelers, and boundaries, which had originally belonged to Pan,
while Pan himself continued to be venerated by his original name in his more rustic aspect as the god of the wild in the relatively isolated mountainous region of Arcadia.
 This was probably his original function, and he may have been a late inclusion in the Olympic pantheon; Hermes is described as the “youngest” Olympian, and some myths,
including his theft of Apollo’s cows, describe his initial coming into contact with celestial deities.
Two snakes coiled around a staff was also a symbol of the god Ningishzida, who, like Hermes, served as a mediator between humans and the divine (specifically, the goddess
Ishtar or the supreme Ningirsu).
This is a pattern that would continue in later periods, as worship of Hermes almost always took place within temples and sanctuaries primarily dedicated to goddesses, including
Hera, Demeter, Hecate, and Despoina.
 The 10th-century Suda attempted to further Christianize the figure of Hermes, claiming that “He was called Trismegistus on account of his praise of the trinity, saying
there is one divine nature in the trinity.
Phidias left a statue of a famous Hermes Logios and Praxiteles another, also well known, showing him with the baby Dionysus in his arms.
 An epithet of Thoth found in the temple at Esna, “Thoth the great, the great, the great”, became applied to Hermes beginning in at least 172 BC.
Barracco Museum, Rome Hermes was known as the patron god of flocks, herds, and shepherds, an attribute possibly tied to his early origin as an aspect of Pan.
 A further Roman Imperial-era syncretism came in the form of Hermanubis, the result of the identification of Hermes with the Egyptian god of the dead, Anubis.
The cult of Hermes flourished in Attica, and many scholars writing before the discovery of the Linear B evidence considered Hermes to be a uniquely Athenian god.
 In art, the Roman Mercury continued the style of depictions found in earlier representations of both Hermes and Turms, a young, beardless god with winged shoes and/or
hat, carrying the caduceus.
 It is likely that Hermes is a pre-Hellenic god, though the exact origins of his worship, and its original nature, remain unclear.
His role as a god of boundaries, a messenger, and a psychopomp also remained unchanged following his adoption into the Roman religion (these attributes were also similar to
those in the Etruscan’s worship of Turms).
[better source needed] A similar-appearing but distinct symbol is the Rod of Asclepius, associated with the patron of medicine and son of Apollo, Asclepius, which bears
only one snake.
The name of the spring was Hermes’ stream and the fish in it were not caught, being considered sacred to the god.
 In the context of these herms, by the Classical period Hermes had come to be worshiped as the patron god of travelers and sailors.
The two gods were worshiped as one at the Temple of Thoth in Khemenu, a city which became known in Greek as Hermopolis.
The Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes, which tells the story of the god’s birth and his subsequent theft of Apollo’s sacred cattle, invokes him as the one “of many shifts (polytropos),
blandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods.
 In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing Prometheus’s act of giving fire to man, every god gave her a
gift, and Hermes’ gifts were lies, seductive words, and a dubious character.
 In the Middle Ages Though worship of Hermes had been almost fully suppressed in the Roman Empire following the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius
I in the 4th century AD, Hermes continued to be recognized as a mystical or prophetic figure, though a mortal one, by Christian scholars.
 As a messenger god In association with his role as a psychopomp and god who is able to easily cross boundaries, Hermes is prominently worshiped as a messenger,
often described as the messenger of the gods (since he can convey messages between the divine realms, the underworld, and the world of mortals).
This name is always recorded alongside those of several goddesses, including Potnija, Posidaeja, Diwja, Hera, Pere, and Ipemedeja, indicating that his worship was strongly
connected to theirs.
 Pausanias wrote that during his time, at Megalopolis people could see the ruins of the temple of Hermes Acacesius.
The inclusion of phallic imagery associated with Hermes and placed, in the form of herma, at the entrances to households may reflect a belief in ancient times that Hermes
was a symbol of the household’s fertility, specifically the potency of the male head of the household in producing children.
 By the 5th century BC, Hermai were also in common use as grave monuments, emphasizing Hermes’ role as a chthonic deity and psychopomp.
[better source needed] As a messenger and divine herald, he wears winged sandals (or, in Roman art influenced by Etruscan depictions of Turms, a winged cap).
 In the Hellenistic period Hermes Fastening his Sandal, early Imperial Roman marble copy of a Lysippan bronze (Louvre Museum) As Greek culture and influence spread
following the conquests of Alexander the Great, a period of syncretism or interpretatio graeca saw many traditional Greek deities identified with foreign counterparts.
At all times, however, through the Hellenistic periods, Roman, and throughout Western history into the present day, several of his characteristic objects are present as identification,
but not always all together.
 In the Roman period As early as the 4th century BC, Romans had adopted Hermes into their own religion, combining his attributes and worship with the earlier Etruscan
god Turms under the name Mercury.
[better source needed] Hermes’ sandals, called pédila by the Greeks and talaria by the Romans, were made of palm and myrtle branches but were described as beautiful, golden
and immortal, made a sublime art, able to take the roads with the speed of wind.
 In Athens, herms were placed outside houses, both as a form of protection for the home, a symbol of male fertility, and as a link between the household and its gods with
the gods of the wider community.
 According to a theory that has received considerable scholarly acceptance, Hermes originated as a form of the god Pan, who has been identified as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European
pastoral god [original research?]
 Hermes (Diactoros, Angelos) the messenger, is in fact only seen in this role, for Zeus, from within the pages of the Odyssey.
The identification of Odin as Mercury was probably also influenced by a previous association of a more Odin-like Celtic god as the “Celtic Mercurius”.
 This is illustrated by a 3rd-century BC example of a letter sent by the priest Petosiris to King Nechopso, probably written in Alexandria c. 150 BC, stating that Hermes
is the teacher of all secret wisdoms, which are accessible by the experience of religious ecstasy.
In this hymn, Hermes is invoked as a god “of many shifts” (polytropos), associated with cunning and thievery, but also a bringer of dreams and a night guardian.
“ Temples and sacred places There are only three temples known to have been specifically dedicated to Hermes during the Classical Greek period, all of them in Arcadia.
However, the reasons for this interpretation appear to go beyond superficial similarities: Both gods are connected to the dead (Mercury as psychopomp and Odin as lord of the
dead in Valhalla), both were connected to eloquent speech, and both were associated with secret knowledge.
 A section of the agora in Athens became known as the Hermai, because it was filled with a large number of herms, placed there as votive offerings by merchants and others
who wished to commemorate a personal success in commerce or other public affair.
 In Hesiod’s The Works and Days, Hermes’ is depicted giving Pandora the gifts of lies, seductive words, and a dubious character.
Frothingham thought the god to have existed as a Mesopotamian snake-god, similar or identical to Ningishzida, a god who served as mediator between humans and the divine, especially
Ishtar, and who was depicted in art as a Caduceus.
 As a shepherd god Kriophoros Hermes (which takes the lamb), late-Roman copy of Greek original from the 5th century BC.
In this context, Hermes became a god associated with the Athenian empire and its expansion, and of democracy itself, as well as all of those closely associated with it, from
the sailors in the navy, to the merchants who drove the economy.
 In Roman mythology and religion many of Hermes’ characteristics belong to Mercury, a name derived from the Latin merx, meaning “merchandise,” and the origin of the
words “merchant” and “commerce.
Hermes is regarded as “the divine trickster,” about which the Homeric Hymn to Hermes offers the most well-known account.
[better source needed] Among these objects is a wide-brimmed hat, the petasos, widely used by rural people of antiquity to protect themselves from the sun, and that
in later times was adorned with a pair of small wings; sometimes this hat is not present, and may have been replaced with wings rising from the hair.
 Mercury became one of the most popular Roman gods, as attested by the numerous shrines and depictions in artwork found in Pompeii.
 The absorbing (“combining”) of the attributes of Hermes to Thoth developed after the time of Homer amongst Greeks and Romans; Herodotus was the first to identify the
Greek god with the Egyptian (Hermopolis) (Plutarch and Diodorus also did so), although Plato thought the gods were dissimilar (Friedlander 1992).
 Hermes on an antique fresco from Pompeii The Romans identified the Germanic god Odin with Mercury, and there is evidence that Germanic peoples who had contact with Roman
culture also accepted this identification.
 As a chthonic deity, the worship of Hermes also included an aspect relating to fertility, with the phallus being included among his major symbols.
 In the Roman period, additional temples to Hermes (Mercury) were constructed across the Empire, including several in modern-day Tunisia.
“ The word polutropos (“of many shifts, turning many ways, of many devices, ingenious, or much wandering”) is also used to describe Odysseus in the first
It is also possible that since the beginning he has been a deity with shamanic attributes linked to divination, reconciliation, magic, sacrifices, and initiation and contact
with other planes of existence, a role of mediator between the worlds of the visible and invisible.
 His attributes had previously influenced the earlier Etruscan god Turms, a name borrowed from the Greek “herma”.
Hermes instructed Odysseus to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; he also told Calypso of Zeus’ order to free Odysseus from her island to allow him to continue his journey
Main article: Herm (sculpture) Main article: Liminal deity In Ancient Greece, Hermes was a phallic god of boundaries.
 As a chthonic and fertility god Beginning with the earliest records of his worship, Hermes has been understood as a chthonic deity (heavily associated with the
earth and/or underworld).
 The figure of Hermes Trismegistus would later absorb a variety of other esoteric wisdom traditions and become a major component of Hermeticism, alchemy, and related traditions.
According to St. Augustin, the Latin name “Mercury” may be a title derived from “medio currens”, in reference to Hermes’ role as a mediator and messenger who moves between
 Kriophoros Main article: Kriophoros In ancient Greek culture, kriophoros (Greek) or criophorus, the “ram-bearer,” is a figure that commemorates the solemn
sacrifice of a ram.
In Classical and Hellenistic Greece, Hermes was usually depicted as a young, athletic man lacking a beard.
This function of Hermes explains why some images in temples and other vessels show him as a teenager.
 One of the oldest places of worship for Hermes was Mount Cyllene in Arcadia, where some myths say he was born.
 This led to Hermes gaining the attributes of a god of translation and interpretation, or more generally, a god of knowledge and learning.
Numerous books of wisdom and magic (including astrology, theosophy, and alchemy) were attributed to this “historical” Hermes, usually identified in his Alexandrian form of
 Dolios (“tricky”) No cult to Hermes Dolios existed in Attica, and so this form of Hermes seems to have existed in speech only.
Several ex-votos found in his temples revealed his role as initiator of young adulthood, among them soldiers and hunters, since war and certain forms of hunting were seen
as ceremonial initiatory ordeals.
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125. ^ Aristophanes, The Frogs of Aristophanes, with Notes and Critical and Explanatory, Adapted to the Use of Schools and Universities, by T. Mitchell, John Murray, 1839.
126. ^ GS Shrimpton, Theopompus The Historian,
127. ^ RA Bauslaugh, The Concept of Neutrality in Classical Greece, University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 0-520-06687-1.
128. ^ Fiske 1865.
129. ^ CO Edwardson (2011), Women and Philanthropy, tricksters and soul: re-storying
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130. ^ The Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies: Ithaca August 2009, Conference Paper, page 12 .
131. ^ The Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies: Ithaca August
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132. ^ Luke Roman; Monica Roman (2010). Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology. Infobase Publishing. pp. 232ff. ISBN 978-1-4381-2639-5.
133. ^ Sourced originally in R Davis-Floyd, P Sven Arvidson (1997).
134. ^ Raffaele Pettazzoni
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135. ^ CS Wright, J Bolton Holloway, RJ Schoeck – Tales within tales: Apuleius through time, AMS Press, 2000, p. 23.
136. ^ John Fiske (1865). Myths and Myth-makers: Old
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137. ^ “Circular Pyxis”. The Walters Art Museum.
138. ^ Homer. The Odyssey. Plain Label Books, 1990. Trans. Samuel Butler. pp. 40, 81–82, 192–195.
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140. ^ Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 919. Quoted in God of Searchers. The Theoi
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141. ^ Aesop. Fables 474, 479, 520, 522, 563, 564. Quoted in God of Dreams of Omen; God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games, Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
142. ^ Orphic Hymn 57 to Chthonian Hermes Aeschylus.
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143. ^ Orphic Hymn 28 to Hermes. Quoted in God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology.
144. ^ Phlegon of Tralles. Book
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145. ^ Apollodorus, 1.6.2.
146. ^ Apollodorus, 3.4.3.
147. ^ Apollodorus, E.3.2.
148. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.12.
149. ^ Apollodorus, 2.4.2.
150. ^ Yao, Steven
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152. ^ Nonnus. Dionysiaca. pp. 8. 220 ff.
153. ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 16
154. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.38.7.
155. ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 2
156. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 11. 301; Pausanias, Description
of Greece 4. 8. 6
157. ^ Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 2
158. ^ Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 256
159. ^ Hyginus, Fabula 160, makes Hermes the father of Pan.
160. ^ Karl Kerényi, Gods of the Greeks, 1951, p. 175, citing G. Kaibel, Epigrammata
graeca ex lapidibus collecta, 817, where the other god’s name, both father and son of Hermes, is obscured; according to other sources, Priapus was a son of Dionysus and Aphrodite.
161. ^ Apollodorus 1.9.16.
162. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophron 1176, 1211;
Heslin, p. 39
163. ^ Photius, Bibliotheca excerpts, 190.50
164. ^ Photius, Bibliotheca excerpts – GR
165. ^ Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 10
166. ^ Miller & Strauss Clay 2019, p. 133.
167. ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.12.
Aelian, Varia Historia 10.18
169. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.53.4; Tripp, s.v. Acacallis.
170. ^ Pausanias, 2.3.10.
171. ^ daughter of Peneus
172. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad, 10. 266
173. ^ Eustathius on Homer, 804
174. ^ Pausanias,
175. ^ Pausanias, 10.17.5
176. ^ Most, p. 173, [= fr. 150.25-35 Merkelbach-West]
177. ^ This Gigas was the father of Ischenus, who was said to have been sacrificed during an outbreak of famine in Olympia; Tzetzes on Lycophron 42.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.1
179. ^ a local nymph of the Arcadians
180. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 160.
181. ^ called the daughter of Palamedes but corrected by later sources as Epaphus
182. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 21.1.
Homer, Iliad 16.183–186.
184. ^ Saon could also have been the son of Zeus and a local nymph; both versions in Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.48.2.
185. ^ Köppen, Johann Heinrich Just; Heinrich, Karl Friedrich; Krause, Johann Christian
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186. ^ According to Hesiod’s Theogony 507–509, Atlas’ mother was the Oceanid Clymene, later accounts have the Oceanid Asia as his mother, see Apollodorus, 1.2.3.
According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
188. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p.
189. ^ According to Hesiod’s Theogony 886–890, of Zeus’ children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena “from his
head”, see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
190. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus’ severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
191. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
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200. ^ Gisela Labouvie-Viefn, Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender in the Life Course Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender
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201. ^ A Samuels (1986). Jung and the Post-Jungians. Taylor & Francis, 1986. ISBN 0-7102-0864-2.
202. ^ López-Pedraza 2003, p. 19.
203. ^ Allan Beveridge, Portrait of
the Psychiatrist as a Young Man: The Early Writing and Work of R.D. Laing, 1927–1960 (p. 88), International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry, OUP, ISBN 0-19-958357-9.
204. ^ Christopher Booker, The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories,
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/sludgeulper/3105702091/’]