New Latin Main article: New Latin During the Early Modern Age, Latin still was the most important language of culture in Europe.
Even after the fall of Western Rome, Latin remained the common language of international communication, science, scholarship and academia in Europe until well into the 18th
century, when other regional vernaculars (including its own descendants, the Romance languages) supplanted it in common academic and political usage, and it eventually became a dead language in the modern linguistic definition.
The spoken language had developed into the various incipient Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world, Latin continued without its natural spoken base.
It was also used in native Latin words by confusion with Greek words of similar meaning, such as sylva Classical Latin distinguished between long and short vowels.
 Contemporary Latin Main articles: Contemporary Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin Despite having no native speakers, Latin is still used for a variety
of purposes in the contemporary world.
One key marker of whether a given Romance feature was found in Vulgar Latin is to compare it with its parallel in Classical Latin.
 There has also been debate over whether ⟨ui⟩ is truly a diphthong in Classical Latin, due to its rarity, absence in works of Roman grammarians, and the roots of Classical
Latin words (i.e.
Later, New Latin evolved during the early modern era to eventually become various forms of rarely spoken Contemporary Latin, one of which, Ecclesiastical Latin, remains the
official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church at Vatican City.
 Classical Latin Main article: Classical Latin During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation
of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, which were taught in grammar and rhetoric schools.
By no later than the 15th century they had replaced Medieval Latin with versions supported by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, by scholarship, to discover
what the classical language had been.
The spelling systems used in Latin dictionaries and modern editions of Latin texts, however, normally use ⟨j u⟩ in place of Classical-era ⟨i v⟩.
Although the Mass of Paul VI (also known as the Ordinary Form or the Novus Ordo) is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, it can be and often is said in Latin,
in part or in whole, especially at multilingual gatherings.
Influence on present-day languages The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development.
In today’s world, a large number of Latin students in the US learn from Wheelock’s Latin: The Classic Introductory Latin Course, Based on Ancient Authors.
Other modern uses Switzerland has adopted the country’s Latin short name Helvetia on coins and stamps, since there is no room to use all of the nation’s four official
 Early Old Latin ⟨ei⟩ usually changed to Classical ⟨ī⟩.
 A variety of organisations, as well as informal Latin ‘circuli’ (‘circles’), have been founded in more recent times to support the use of spoken Latin.
Roman medicine, recorded in the works of such physicians as Galen, established that today’s medical terminology would be primarily derived from Latin and Greek words, the
Greek being filtered through the Latin.
During the Classical Latin period this form of speaking was deliberately avoided by well-educated speakers.
; Ethnicity: Latins, Romans; Era: 7th century BC – 18th century AD; Language family: Indo-European; Italic, Latino-Faliscan, Latin; Writing system: Latin alphabet ; Official
status: Official language in: Holy See; Regulated by: Antiquity: Roman schools of grammar/rhetoric; Today: Pontifical Academy for Latin; Language codes: ISO 639-1: la; ISO 639-2: lat; ISO 639-3: lat; Glottolog: impe1234, lati1261; Linguasphere:
51-AAB-aa to 51-AAB-ac History A number of phases of the language have been recognized, each distinguished by subtle differences in vocabulary, usage, spelling, and syntax.
Therefore, until the end of the 17th century, the majority of books and almost all diplomatic documents were written in Latin.
The Living Latin movement attempts to teach Latin in the same way that living languages are taught, as a means of both spoken and written communication.
Many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French.
After the Western Roman Empire fell in 476 and Germanic kingdoms took its place, the Germanic people adopted Latin as a language more suitable for legal and other, more formal
The decline of the Roman Empire meant a deterioration in educational standards that brought about Late Latin, a postclassical stage of the language seen in Christian writings
of the time.
 Old Latin Main article: Old Latin The Lapis Niger, probably the oldest extant Latin inscription, from Rome, c. 600 BC during the semi-legendary Roman Kingdom The
earliest known form of Latin is Old Latin, which was spoken from the Roman Kingdom to the later part of the Roman Republic period.
[dubious – discuss] popular in the early 20th century, is Latin with its inflections stripped away, among other grammatical changes.
 The acute accent, when it is used in modern Latin texts, indicates stress, as in Spanish, rather than length.
Late Latin is the written language from the 3rd century, and its various Vulgar Latin dialects developed in the 6th to 9th centuries into the modern Romance languages.
 There have been several Latin translations since, including a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
Wheelock’s Latin has become the standard text for many American introductory Latin courses.
Use of Latin for mottos In the Philippines and in the Western world, many organizations, governments and schools use Latin for their mottos due to its association with
formality, tradition, and the roots of Western culture.
 Renaissance Latin Main article: Renaissance Latin Most 15th-century printed books (incunabula) were in Latin, with the vernacular languages playing only a secondary
They were, throughout the period, confined to everyday speech, as Medieval Latin was used for writing.
These dialects were distinct from the classical form of the language spoken by the Roman upper classes, the form in which Romans generally wrote.
From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed “inkhorn terms”, as if they had spilled
from a pot of ink.
 The Vulgar Latin dialect that would later become Romanian diverged somewhat more from the other varieties, as it was largely separated from the unifying influences in
the western part of the Empire.
Medieval Latin was used during the Middle Ages as a literary language from the 9th century to the Renaissance, which then used Renaissance Latin.
Latin law principles have survived partly in a long list of Latin legal terms.
By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardized into Classical Latin used by educated elites.
 Official status Latin was or is the official language of European states: • Hungary – Latin was an official language in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 11th century
to the mid 19th century, when Hungarian became the exclusive official language in 1844.
In the Anglican Church, after the publication of the Book of Common Prayer of 1559, a Latin edition was published in 1560 for use in universities such as Oxford and the leading
“public schools” (English private academies), where the liturgy was still permitted to be conducted in Latin.
Medieval Latin might use fui and fueram instead.
 Vulgar Latin began to diverge into distinct languages by the 9th century at the latest, when the earliest extant Romance writings begin to appear.
The informal language was rarely written, so philologists have been left with only individual words and phrases cited by classical authors and those found as graffiti.
They strove to preserve what they could and restore Latin to what it had been and introduced the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that remained
by comparing surviving manuscripts.
 The Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin and were originally the popular and informal dialects spoken by various layers of the Latin-speaking population.
 • Poland, Kingdom of Poland – officially recognised and widely used between the 10th and 18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular
as a second language among some of the nobility.
 Admission to Harvard in the Colonial era required that the applicant “Can readily make and speak or write true Latin prose and has skill in making verse .
Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through the power of the Roman Republic it became the
dominant language in the Italian region and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire.
“, is also Latin in origin.
Latin has also greatly influenced the English language and historically contributed many words to the English lexicon after the Christianization of Anglo-Saxons and the Norman
 Vulgar Latin Main articles: Vulgar Latin, Late Latin, and Romance languages Philological analysis of Archaic Latin works, such as those of Plautus, which contain
fragments of everyday speech, indicates that a spoken language, Vulgar Latin (termed sermo vulgi, “the speech of the masses”, by Cicero), existed concurrently with literate Classical Latin.
In addition to the historical phases, Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the styles used by the writers of the Roman Catholic Church from late antiquity onward, as well as by
It appeared in Greek loanwords starting around the first century BC, when it was probably pronounced [z] initially and doubled [zz] between vowels, in contrast to Classical
Greek [dz] or [zd].
 Afterwards, most diplomatic documents were written in French (a Romance language) and later native or other languages.
The continued instruction of Latin is often seen as a highly valuable component of a liberal arts education.
The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part, in substantial works or in fragments to be analyzed in philology.
 Medieval Latin Main article: Medieval Latin The Latin Malmesbury Bible from 1407 Medieval Latin is the written Latin in use during that portion of the postclassical
period when no corresponding Latin vernacular existed.
 Currently, the five most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and Romanian.
The unvarnished, journalistic style of this patrician general has long been taught as a model of the urbane Latin officially spoken and written in the floruit of the Roman
Throughout European history, an education in the classics was considered crucial for those who wished to join literate circles.
This is distinguished from the typical Italo-Western romance vowel system in which short /i/ and /u/ merge with long /eː/ and /oː/.
In Classical Latin poetry, the letter ⟨Z⟩ between vowels always counts as two consonants for metrical purposes.
Today, it is official in Vatican City, although Italian is the working language there.
Some notes concerning the mapping of Latin phonemes to English graphemes are given below: In Classical Latin, as in modern Italian, double consonant letters were pronounced
as long consonant sounds distinct from short versions of the same consonants.
The Tridentine Mass (also known as the Extraordinary Form or Traditional Latin Mass) is celebrated in Latin.
 Furthermore, the meanings of many words have been changed and new vocabularies have been introduced from the vernacular.
Occasionally, Latin dialogue is used because of its association with religion or philosophy, in such film/television series as The Exorcist and Lost (“Jughead”).
 The best known Latin language poet of Croatian-Hungarian origin was Janus Pannonius.
[‘”Schools” . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 363–376.
2. ^ Sandys, John Edwin (1910). A companion to Latin studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 811–812.
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Retrieved 15 February 2016. In Italy, all alphabets were originally written from right to left; the oldest Latin inscription, which appears on the lapis niger of the seventh century BC, is in bustrophedon, but all other early Latin inscriptions run
from right to left.
7. ^ Sacks, David (2003). Language Visible: Unraveling the Mystery of the Alphabet from A to Z. London: Broadway Books. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7679-1172-6.
8. ^ Pope, Mildred K (1966). From Latin to modern French with especial consideration
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Akademii Nauk, 2013. Page 97: “Even according to Albanian linguists, Albanian vocabulary is composed in 60 percent of Latin words from different periods… When albanological studies were just emerging, it happened that Albanian was classified as
a Romance language. Already there exists the idea of a common origin of both Albanian and Rumanian languages. The Rumanian grammar is almost identical to that of Albanian, but it may be as well the effect of later convergence within the Balkan Sprachbund..”
Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). Ordered Profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. C. Winter. ISBN 978-3-533-02253-4.
34. ^ Uwe Pörksen, German Academy for Language and Literature’s Jahrbuch [Yearbook] 2007 (Wallstein
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Story of Language. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-397-00400-3.
37. ^ Of the eighty-nine men who signed the Declaration of Independence and attended the Constitutional Convention, thirty-six went to a Colonial college, all of which offered only the classical
curriculum. Richard M. Gummere, The American Colonial Mind and the Classical Tradition, p.66 (1963).
38. ^ Meyer Reinhold, Classica Americana: The Greek and Roman Heritage in the United States, p.27 (1984). Harvard’s curriculum was patterned after
those of Oxford and Cambridge, and the curricula of other Colonial colleges followed Harvard’s. Lawrence A. Cremin, American Education: The Colonial Experience, 1607–1783, pp. 128–129 (1970), and Frederick Rudolph, Curriculum: A History of the American
Undergraduate Course of Study Since 1636, pp.31–32 (1978).
39. ^ Id. at 104.
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“train the brain”?”. The Times Literary Supplement. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. No, you learn Latin because of what was written in it – and because of the sexual side of life direct access that Latin gives you to a literary tradition
that lies at the very heart (not just at the root) of Western culture.
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46. ^ Who only knows Latin can go across
the whole Poland from one side to the other one just like he was at his own home, just like he was born there. So great happiness! I wish a traveler in England could travel without knowing any other language than Latin!, Daniel Defoe, 1728
Anatol Lieven, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, Yale University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-300-06078-5, Google Print, p.48
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63. ^ Diringer 1996, p. 540
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71. ^ Jenks 1911, pp. 35, 40
72. ^ Ebbe Vilborg – Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok – Second edition, 2009.
73. ^ There are many ways
in which modern Latin speakers can refer to the French language, among which gallicum, francicum, francense, francogallicum. All variants would be understood, but note that gallicum could also mean Gaulish and francicum could also mean Frankish.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jonicdao/6187740107/’]