The English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti admired the book, writing in 1854 that it was “the first novel I’ve read for an age, and the best (as regards power
and sound style) for two ages, except Sidonia”, but, in the same letter, he also referred to it as “a fiend of a book – an incredible monster […] The action is laid in hell, – only it seems places and people have English names there”.
 Point of view Most of the novel is the story told by housekeeper Nelly Dean to Lockwood, though the novel uses several narrators (in fact, five or six) to place
the story in perspective, or in a variety of perspectives.
 Still, in 1934, Lord David Cecil, writing in Early Victorian Novelists, commented “that Emily Brontë was not properly appreciated; even her admirers saw her as an ‘unequal
genius’,” and in 1948 F. R. Leavis excluded Wuthering Heights from the great tradition of the English novel because it was “a ‘kind of sport’—an anomaly with ‘some influence of an essentially undetectable kind.
Writing to her publisher, W. S. Williams, she said that It seems to me advisable to modify the orthography of the old servant Joseph’s speeches; for though, as it stands,
it exactly renders the Yorkshire dialect to a Yorkshire ear, yet I am sure Southerns must find it unintelligible; and thus one of the most graphic characters in the book is lost on them.
Twelve years later, after Isabella’s death, the still-sickly Linton is brought back to live with his uncle Edgar at the Grange, but Heathcliff insists that his son must instead
live with him.
 The Literary World wrote: In the whole story not a single trait of character is elicited which can command our admiration, not one of the fine feelings of our nature
seems to have formed a part in the composition of its principal actors.
Catherine marries him instead of Heathcliff because of his higher social status, with disastrous results to all characters in the story.
 Catherine Earnshaw has been identified by some critics as a type of gothic demon because she “shape-shifts” in order to marry Edgar Linton, assuming a domesticity that
is contrary to her true nature.
Although one of the more sympathetic characters of the novel, she is also somewhat snobbish towards Hareton and his lack of education.
Heathcliff was seeing visions of the dead Catherine; he avoided the young people, saying that he could not bear to see Catherine’s eyes, which they both shared, looking at
 The use of a character like Nelly Dean is a literary device, a well-known convention taken from the Gothic novel, the function of which is to portray the events in a
more mysterious and exciting manner.
Thus, for example, Lockwood, the first narrator of the story, tells the story of Nelly, who herself tells the story of another character.
The inner story is that of Nelly Dean, who transmits to Lockwood the history of the two families during the last two generations.
She lives and works among the rough inhabitants of Wuthering Heights but is well-read, and she also experiences the more genteel manners of Thrushcross Grange.
“ Graham’s Lady Magazine wrote: “How a human being could have attempted such a book as the present without committing suicide before he had finished a dozen chapters,
is a mystery.
 According to Juliet Barker, Walter Scott’s novel Rob Roy (1817) had a significant influence on Wuthering Heights, which, though “regarded as the archetypal Yorkshire
novel … owed as much, if not more, to Walter Scott’s Border country”.
 A major influence on how Brontë depicts amoral characters was the stories her father Patrick Brontë told, about
The only strongly religious character in Wuthering Heights is Joseph who is usually seen as satirizing “the joyless version of Methodism that the Brontë children were exposed
to through their Aunt Branwell”.
However, for a later critic, Albert J. Guerard, “it is a splendid, imperfect novel which Brontë loses control over occasionally”.
 Walter Allen, in The English Novel (1954), likewise “spoke of the two houses in the novel as symbolising ‘two opposed principles which … ultimately compose a harmony'”.
Although not much of his character is known, he seems to be a rough but honest person.
It has been suggested that both he and Catherine are in fact meant to be seen as vampire-like personalities.
 In 1926 Charles Percy Sanger’s work on the chronology of Wuthering Heights “affirmed Emily’s literary craft and meticulous planning of the novel and disproved Charlotte’s
presentation of her sister as an unconscious artist who ‘did not know what she had done’.”
 It has also been suggested that Catherine’s relationship with Heathcliff conforms to the “dynamics of the Gothic romance, in that the woman falls prey to the more or
less demonic instincts of her lover, suffers from the violence of his feelings, and at the end is entangled by his thwarted passion”.
 And though a daughter of a curate, Brontë showed little respect for religion.
The frame story is that of Lockwood, who informs us of his meeting with the strange and mysterious “family” living in almost total isolation in the stony uncultivated land
of northern England.
Hence it is that both Emily and Charlotte are always invoking the help of nature.
His revenge against the man she chooses to marry and its consequences are the central theme of the second volume.
• Mr Lockwood: The first narrator, he rents Thrushcross Grange to escape society, but in the end, decides society is preferable.
He and Catherine Earnshaw grow close, and their love is the central theme of the first volume.
 The Atlas review called it a “strange, inartistic story”, but commented that every chapter seems to contain a “sort of rugged power.
 Lord David Cecil in Early Victorian Novelists (1934) drew attention to the contrast between the two main settings in Wuthering Heights: We have Wuthering Heights, the
land of storm; high on the barren moorland, naked to the shock of the elements, the natural home of the Earnshaw family, fiery, untamed children of the storm.
Hareton speaks with an accent similar to Joseph’s, and occupies a position similar to that of a servant at Wuthering Heights, unaware that he has been done out of his inheritance.
“ Douglas Jerrold’s Weekly Newspaper wrote: Wuthering Heights is a strange sort of book,—baffling all regular criticism; yet, it is impossible to begin and not finish
it; and quite as impossible to lay it aside afterwards and say nothing about.
Two years later, Catherine becomes engaged to Edgar.
 In 2018 Penguin presented a list of 100 must-read classic books and placed Wuthering Heights at number 71, saying: “Widely considered a staple of Gothic fiction and the
English literary canon, this book has gone on to inspire many generations of writers – and will continue to do so”.
She is referred to as Ellen, her given name, to show respect, and as Nelly among those close to her.
Harvey said that “It’s impossible to imagine this novel ever provoking quiet slumbers; Emily Brontë’s vision of nature blazes with poetry”.
 Scott distinguished the romance from the novel, where (as he saw it) “events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society”.
 Setting Novelist John Cowper Powys notes the importance of the setting: By that singular and forlorn scenery-the scenery of the Yorkshire moors round her home—[Emily
Brontë] was, however, in the more flexible portion of her curious nature inveterately influenced.
• Ellen (Nelly) Dean: The main narrator of the novel, Nelly is a servant to three generations of the Earnshaws and two of the Linton family.
The entry on Wuthering Heights in the 2002 Oxford Companion to English Literature, “says that the ending of the novel points to a union of ‘the two contrasting worlds and
moral orders represented by the Heights and the Grange'”.
It is not without evidences of considerable power: but, as a whole, it is wild, confused, disjointed, and improbable; and the people who make up the drama, which is tragic
enough in its consequences, are savages ruder than those who lived before the days of Homer.
He becomes increasingly wild and reveals that on the night Catherine died he dug up her grave, and ever since has been plagued by her ghost.
 The American Whig Review wrote: Respecting a book so original as this, and written with so much power of imagination, it is natural that there should be many opinions.
However, it does not match the description given in the novel and is closer in size and appearance to the farmhouse of Wuthering Heights.
Even though Heathcliff has no alcohol or drug problems, the influence of Branwell’s character is likely although the same could be said, perhaps more appropriately, of Hindley
Earnshaw and Linton Heathcliff.
At one point in the novel Heathcliff is thought a vampire.
A weak child, his early years are spent with his mother in the south of England.
He dies less than a year after Catherine and leaves his son with nothing.
Hindley departs for university, returning as the new master of Wuthering Heights on the death of his father three years later.
 The novel was first published together with Anne Brontë’s Agnes Grey in a three-volume format: Wuthering Heights filled the first two volumes and Agnes Grey made up
… We strongly recommend all our readers who love novelty to get this story, for we can promise them that they never have read anything like it before.
 It has inspired an array of adaptations across several media, including English singer-songwriter Kate Bush’s song of the same name.
This view began to change in the 1880s with the publication of A. Mary F. Robinson’s biography of Emily in 1883.
It is this suggestion of power underlying the apparitions of human nature and lifting them up into the presence of greatness that gives the book its huge stature among other
Heathcliff has been considered a Byronic hero, but critics have pointed out that he reinvents himself at various points, making his character hard to fit into any single type.
 Thus the point of view comes from a combination of two speakers who outline the events of the plot within the framework of a story within a story.
In Wuthering Heights the reader is shocked, disgusted, almost sickened by details of cruelty, inhumanity, and the most diabolical hate and vengeance, and anon come passages
of powerful testimony to the supreme power of love – even over demons in the human form.
… She looked out upon a world cleft into gigantic disorder and felt within her the power to unite it in a book.
The description of her life is confined almost entirely to the first volume.
Nelly’s tale Thirty years earlier, the Earnshaws live at Wuthering Heights with their children, Hindley and Catherine, and a servant—Nelly herself.
 Writing for BBC Culture in 2015 author and book reviewer Jane Ciabattari polled 82 book critics from outside the UK and presented Wuthering Heights as number 7 in
the resulting list of 100 greatest British novels.
‘” Twenty-first century Writing in The Guardian in 2003 writer and editor Robert McCrum placed Wuthering Heights at number 17 in his list of 100 greatest novels
of all time.
That gigantic ambition is to be felt throughout the novel …
The climb to ruined farmhouse Top Withens, thought to have inspired the Earnshaws’ home in Wuthering Heights Heathcliff and Catherine spy on Edgar Linton and his sister Isabella,
children who live nearby at Thrushcross Grange.
“ Likewise Virginia Woolf suggests the importance of the Yorkshire landscape of Haworth to the poetic vision of both Emily and Charlotte Brontë: [Who] if they choose to
write in prose, [were] intolerant of its restrictions.
They seized those aspects of the earth which were most akin to what they themselves felt or imputed to their characters, and so their storms, their moors, their lovely spaces
of summer weather are not ornaments applied to decorate a dull page or display the writer’s powers of observation—they carry on the emotion and light up the meaning of the book.
We have been taken and carried through a new region, a melancholy waste, with here and there patches of beauty; have been brought in contact with fierce passions, with extremes
of love and hate, and with sorrow that none but those who have suffered can understand.
This has not been accomplished with ease, but with an ill-mannered contempt for the decencies of language, and in a style which might resemble that of a Yorkshire farmer who
should have endeavored to eradicate his provincialism by taking lessons of a London footman.
 Walter Scott defined this as “a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents”.
 The narrative in addition includes an excerpt from Catherine Earnshaw’s old diary, and short sections narrated by Heathcliff, Isabella, and another servant.
[‘Nussbaum, Martha Craven (1996). “Wuthering Heights: The Romantic Ascent”. Philosophy and Literature. 20 (2): 20. doi:10.1353/phl.1996.0076. S2CID 170407962 – via Project Muse.
2. ^ Eagleton, Terry (2005). Myths of Power. A Marxist Study of the Brontës.
London: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-4697-3.
3. ^ Jump up to:a b Wiltshire, Irene (March 2005). “Speech in Wuthering Heights: Joseph’s Dialect and Charlotte’s Emendations” (PDF). Brontë Studies. 30: 19–29. doi:10.1179/147489304×18821. S2CID
162093218. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013.
4. ^ Mohrt, Michel (1984). Preface. Les Hauts de Hurle-Vent [Wuthering Heights]. By Brontë, Emily (in French). Le Livre de Poche. pp. 7, 20. ISBN 978-2-253-00475-2.
5. ^ Gilbert,
Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Imagination. New Haven: Yale UP, 2000.
6. ^ Hafley, James (December 1958). “The Villain in “Wuthering Heights”” (PDF). Nineteenth-Century Fiction.
13 (3): 199–215. doi:10.2307/3044379. JSTOR 3044379. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
7. ^ Brontë, Emily (1847). “Wuthering Heights: A Novel”. Thomas Cautley Newby. Retrieved 13 August 2020 – via Internet
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» Elizabeth Gaskell » The Life of Charlotte Bronte » Chapter 24
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18. ^ “Originally written in German in 1848 by Wilhelm Meinhold, ‘Sidonia the Sorceress’
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to paint various scenes from the text including full-length figure studies of Sidonia and her foil Clara in 1860. Both paintings are now in the Tate collection.” Kelmscott Press edition of Sidonia the Sorceress, Jane Wilde, 1893.
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30. ^ The 100 greatest British novels .
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33. ^ Joun Cwper Powys, Suspended Judgment, p. 319.
34. ^ Virginia
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36. ^ Paul Fletcher,
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58. ^ Elizabeth Gaskell The Life of Charlotte Brontë, London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1857,
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84. ^ “Emily Brontë: Religion, Metaphysic, and Mysticism”. cuny.edu
85. ^ John W Harvey, “Translator’s Preface” to The Idea of the Holy by Rudolph Otto OUP USA, 1958, p. xiii
86. ^ “Otto on the Numinous: The Connection
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87. ^ See R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy (1923); 2nd edn, trans. J.W. Harvey (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1950) p. 5.
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