Additionally, temperature, and thus cooking, can be very even throughout the food in sous vide cooking, even with irregularly shaped and very thick items, given enough
Sous vide (/suːˈviːd/; French for ‘under vacuum’), also known as low-temperature, long-time (LTLT) cooking, is a method of cooking invented by the French chef
Georges Pralus in 1974, in which food is placed in a plastic pouch or a glass jar and cooked in a water bath for longer than usual cooking times (usually one to seven hours, and more than three days in some cases) at a precisely regulated
It allows cooked food to be stored, still sealed and refrigerated, for considerable times, which is especially useful for the catering industry, and it excludes oxygen from
food that requires long cooking and is susceptible to oxidation, e.g., fat on meat, which may become rancid with prolonged exposure to air.
This secondary browning is done briefly, and sometimes at higher heat than usually used, so as to affect only the surface of the food and to avoid overcooking the interior.
The goal is to have the food completely in contact with the hot water to ensure even cooking while reducing off flavors from oxidation.
He used air as the heat-transfer medium in his experiments while attempting to see if he could roast meat in a machine which he had created to dry potatoes.
By contrast, in conventional high-heat cooking, such as oven roasting or grilling, the food is exposed to heat levels that are much higher than the desired internal cooking
temperature, and it must be removed from the high heat prior to reaching the desired cooking temperature.
History Sous vide cooking is characterized by low-temperature cooking, a longer period of cooking than conventional cooking, a container (such as a plastic bag) that separates
the food from its heating environment, and pressurized enclosure using full or partial vacuum.
Placing the packaged food in a water bath, with the temperature set at the desired final cooking temperature of the food, prevents overcooking, because the food cannot get
hotter than the bath it is in, as in bain-marie.
The use of temperatures much lower than those used for conventional cooking is an essential feature of sous vide.
Safety Food safety is a function of both time and temperature; a temperature usually considered insufficient to render food safe may be perfectly safe if maintained for long
 Generally speaking, food that is heated and served within four hours is considered safe, but meat that is cooked for longer to tenderize must reach a temperature of at
least 55 °C (131 °F) within four hours and then be kept there for sufficient time, to pasteurize the meat.
 Duplicating some effects of sous vide techniques is possible through the use of a rigid-sided, insulated container, such as a “beer cooler”, filled with warm water, checked
with an accurate thermometer, and coupled with resealable bags, which allow the air to be removed, to package the food for cooking.
The time taken for the center of food to reach the target temperature depends on the initial temperature, the thickness and shape of the food, and the temperature of the bath.
As a result of precise temperature control of the bath and the fact that the bath temperature is the same as the target cooking temperature, very precise control of cooking
can be achieved.
Preparation of food under pressure, with or without heat, was developed by American and French engineers in the mid-1960s as an industrial food preservation method.
 Regular cooking times are determined by when the center of the cooked item reaches a few degrees below the targeted temperature.
However, the heat loss involved in this technique makes it unfeasible for long-term (four-plus hours) cooking.
Low-temperature cooking allows plant matter to remain more succulent, as the cell walls do not burst.
As an alternative method to a commercial or home vacuum sealer, the food may be placed in an open-sided plastic bag, and then partially submerged into the water, which displaces/forces
out the air.
Due to his research into the effects of temperature on various foods, through CREA, he became well-known for training top chefs in the method.
He developed the parameters of cooking times and temperatures for various foods.
Beginning in 2008, Auber Instruments and Fresh Meals Solutions made available comparatively inexpensive yet highly accurate PID controllers with attached thermocouple probes
that could be used to control commercial rice cookers, slow cookers, electric stock pots, and similar apparatuses.
 It also improves the transfer of heat between the water bath and food, without the thermal insulating properties of any trapped air in the bag.
The pressure notably concentrated the flavors of fruits, even without cooking.
 Cooking vegetables at temperatures below the boiling point of water allows them to be thoroughly cooked (and pasteurized, if necessary) while maintaining a firm or somewhat
The temperature is much lower than usually used for cooking, typically around 55 to 60 °C (130 to 140 °F) for red meat, 66 to 71 °C (150 to 160 °F) for poultry, and higher
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ciara-doll/14275234071/’]