Scenes in which Zeus appears include: • Book 2: Zeus sends Agamemnon a dream and is able to partially control his decisions because of the effects of the dream •
Book 4: Zeus promises Hera to ultimately destroy the City of Troy at the end of the war • Book 7: Zeus and Poseidon ruin the Achaeans fortress • Book 8: Zeus prohibits the other Gods from fighting each other and has to return to Mount Ida
where he can think over his decision that the Greeks will lose the war • Book 14: Zeus is seduced by Hera and becomes distracted while she helps out the Greeks • Book 15: Zeus wakes up and realizes that his own brother, Poseidon has been aiding
the Greeks, while also sending Hector and Apollo to help fight the Trojans ensuring that the City of Troy will fall • Book 16: Zeus is upset that he couldn’t help save Sarpedon’s life because it would then contradict his previous decisions
• Book 17: Zeus is emotionally hurt by the fate of Hector • Book 20: Zeus lets the other Gods lend aid to their respective sides in the war • Book 24: Zeus demands that Achilles release the corpse of Hector to be buried honourably Other myths
Zeus slept with his great-granddaughter, Alcmene, disguised as her husband Amphitryon.
 Ascension to Power 1st century BC statue of Zeus According to the Theogony, after Zeus reaches manhood, Cronus is made to disgorge the five children and the stone
“by the stratagems of Gaia, but also by the skills and strength of Zeus”, presumably in reverse order, vomiting out the stone first, then each of the five children in the opposite order to swallowing.
The local child of the Great Mother, “a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort”, whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in
time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos (“boy-Zeus”), often simply the Kouros.
Zeus carrying away Ganymede (Late Archaic terracotta, 480-470 BC) Many myths render Hera as jealous of his affairs and a consistent enemy of Zeus’ mistresses and their children
This resulted in the birth of Heracles, who would be tormented by Zeus’s wife Hera for the rest of his life.
 In one account Hera refused to marry Zeus and hid in a cave to avoid him; an earthborn man named Achilles convinced her to give him a chance, and thus the two had their
first sexual intercourse.
 Hera gives him to Amalthea, who hangs his cradle from a tree, where he isn’t in heaven, on earth or in the sea, meaning that when Cronus later goes looking for Zeus,
he is unable to find him.
Zeus then promised Achilles that every person who bore his name shall become famous.
Zeus in the form of a snake would mate with his daughter Persephone, which resulted in the birth of Dionysus.
Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity as doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different
aspects of his wide-ranging authority: • Zeus Aegiduchos or Aegiochos: Usually taken as Zeus as the bearer of the Aegis, the divine shield with the head of Medusa across it, although others derive it from “goat” and οχή in reference to
Zeus’ nurse, the divine goat Amalthea.
The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus, together with the assertion
of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.
 Following her parents’ instructions, she travels to Lyctus in Crete, where she gives birth to Zeus, handing the newborn child over to Gaia for her to raise, and Gaia
takes him to a cave on Mount Aegaeon.
According to Hesiod, the Giants are the offspring of Gaia, born from the drops of blood that fell on the ground when Cronus castrated his father Uranus; there is, however,
no mention of a battle between the gods and the Giants in the Theogony.
This, Cook argues, brings indeed much new ‘light’ to the matter as Achaeus, the contemporary tragedian of Sophocles, spoke of Zeus Lykaios as “starry-eyed”, and this Zeus
Lykaios may just be the Arcadian Zeus, son of Aether, described by Cicero.
 The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Crete and that posthumously, his glory had slowly turned him
into a deity.
When Macris came to look for her ward, the mountain-god Cithaeron drove her away, saying that Zeus was taking his pleasure there with Leto.
He commands Hephaestus to mold from earth the first woman, a “beautiful evil” whose descendants would torment the human race.
 While Lactantius wrote that he was called Zeus and Zen, not because he is the giver of life, but because he was the first who lived of the children of Cronus.
 According to the Iliad, after the battle with the Titans, Zeus shares the world with his brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus receives the sky, Poseidon
the sea, and Hades the underworld, with the earth and Olympus remaining common ground.
“ He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe “That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men”.
 Hesiod says he “would have come to reign over mortals and immortals” had it not been for Zeus noticing the monster and dispatching with him quickly: the two of them
meet in a cataclysmic battle, before Zeus defeats him easily with his thunderbolt, and the creature is hurled down to Tartarus.
 Apollodorus provides a similar account, saying that, when Zeus reaches adulthood, he enlists the help of the Oceanid Metis, who gives Cronus an emetic, forcing to him
to disgorge the stone and Zeus’s five siblings.
Hera discovered his affair when Semele later became pregnant, and persuaded Semele to sleep with Zeus in his true form.
 Prometheus and conflicts with humans When the gods met at Mecone to discuss which portions they will receive after a sacrifice, the titan Prometheus decided to trick
Zeus so that humans receive the better portions.
 There comes to the gods a prophecy that the Giants cannot be defeated by the gods on their own, but can be defeated only with the help of a mortal; Gaia, upon hearing
of this, seeks a special pharmakon (herb) that will prevent the Giants from being killed.
 He swallows each child as soon as they are born, having received a prophecy from his parents, Gaia and Uranus, that one of his own children is destined to one day overthrow
him as he overthrew his father.
 Epimenides presents a different version, in which Typhon makes his way into Zeus’s palace while he is sleeping, only for Zeus to wake and kill the monster with a thunderbolt.
 According to Plato, a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would
be intermingled with the animal’s.
 Antoninus Liberalis, in his Metamorphoses, says that Rhea gives birth to Zeus in a sacred cave in Crete, full of sacred bees, which become the nurses of the infant.
He says that Gaia, out of anger at how Zeus had imprisoned her children, the Titans, bore the Giants to Uranus.
Zeus[a] is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
In the section of the Iliad known to scholars as the Deception of Zeus, the two of them are described as having begun their sexual relationship without their parents knowing
 In a satirical work, Dialogues of the Gods by Lucian, Zeus berates Helios for allowing such thing to happen; he returns the damaged chariot to him and warns him that
if he dares do that again, he will strike him with one of this thunderbolts.
Upon laying eyes on the swaddling clothes of Zeus, their bronze armour “split[s] away from their bodies”, and Zeus would have killed them had it not been for the intervention
of the Moirai and Themis; he instead transforms them into various species of birds.
There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries’ worth of animals sacrificed there.
 According to Diodorus Siculus, Alcmene, the mother of Heracles, was the very last mortal woman Zeus ever slept with; following the birth of Heracles, he ceased to beget
humans altogether, and fathered no more children.
 He was respected as an allfather who was chief of the gods and assigned roles to the others: “Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father,
and all the gods rise in his presence.
Cronus travels to Crete to look for Zeus, who, to conceal his presence, transforms himself into a snake and his two nurses into bears.
 This causes Rhea “unceasing grief”, and upon becoming pregnant with her sixth child, Zeus, she approaches her parents, Gaia and Uranus, seeking a plan to save her
child and bring retribution to Cronus.
 Zeus granted Callirrhoe’s prayer that her sons by Alcmaeon, Acarnan and Amphoterus, grow quickly so that they might be able to avenge the death of their father by the
hands of Phegeus and his two sons.
 In the conflict, Porphyrion, one of the most powerful of the Giants, launches an attack upon Heracles and Hera; Zeus, however, causes Porphyrion to become lustful for
Hera, and when he is just about to violate her, Zeus strikes him with his thunderbolt, before Heracles deals the fatal blow with an arrow.
Later, their daughter Athena would be born from the forehead of Zeus.
However, at the request of Apollo’s mother, Leto, Zeus instead ordered Apollo to serve as a slave to King Admetus of Pherae for a year.
 The battle lasts for ten years with no clear victor emerging, until, upon Gaia’s advice, Zeus releases the Hundred-Handers, who (similarly to the Cyclopes) were imprisoned
beneath the Earth’s surface.
Though the Homeric “cloud collector” was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was
the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity.
 Zeus next frees the Cyclopes, who, in return, and out of gratitude, give him his thunderbolt, which had previously been hidden by Gaia.
When Zeus showed his true form to Semele, his lightning and thunderbolts burned her to death.
 Hyginus also says that Ida, Althaea, and Adrasteia, usually considered the children of Oceanus, are sometimes called the daughters of Melisseus and the nurses of Zeus.
Upon assuming his place as king of the cosmos, Zeus’ rule is quickly challenged.
There is, however, the crucial detail that Lykaios or Lykeios (epithets of Zeus and Apollo) may derive from Proto-Greek “light”, a noun still attested in compounds such as
Again under this new signification may be seen Pausanias’ descriptions of Lykosoura being ‘the first city that ever the sun beheld’, and of the altar of Zeus, at the summit
of Mount Lykaion, before which stood two col
 Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda (for more details, see below) and with the young Ganymede (although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth
Zeus gave her a jar which contained many evils.
For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the
words of others.
 Mythology Birth “Cave of Zeus”, Mount Ida, Crete In Hesiod’s Theogony (c. 730 – 700 BC), Cronus, after castrating his father Uranus, becomes the supreme ruler of
the cosmos, and weds his sister Rhea, by whom he begets three daughters and three sons: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and lastly, “wise” Zeus, the youngest of the six.
Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of three poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.
 Zeus then sets up the stone at Delphi, so that it may act as “a sign thenceforth and a marvel to mortal men”.
 Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, also called *Dyeus ph2tēr (“Sky Father”).
 Diodorus Siculus wrote that Zeus was also called Zen, because the humans believed that he was the cause of life (zen).
The epithet Zeus Lykaios (“wolf-Zeus”) is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaion (“Wolf Mountain”), the
tallest peak in rustic Arcadia; Zeus had only a formal connection with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who
were the participants.
 Diodorus Siculus provides a similar account, saying that, after giving birth, Rhea travels to Mount Ida and gives the newborn Zeus to the Kouretes, who then takes
him to some nymphs (not named), who raised him on a mixture of honey and milk from the goat Amalthea.
 Zeus then fights a similar ten-year war against the Titans, until, upon the prophesying of Gaia, he releases the Cyclopes and Hundred-Handers from Tartarus, first slaying
their warder, Campe.
 Zeus mated with several nymphs and was seen as the father of many mythical mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties.
 While Hesiod gives Lyctus as Zeus’s birthplace, he is the only source to do so, and other authors give different locations.
Zeus then transformed back and took hold of her; because she was refusing to sleep with him due to their mother, he promised to marry her.
 The fifth wife of Zeus was his aunt, the Titan Mnemosyne, whom he seduced in the form of a mortal shepherd.
 Seven wives of Zeus Jupiter, disguised as a shepherd, tempts Mnemosyne by Jacob de Wit (1727) According to Hesiod, Zeus had seven wives.
When Zeus is born, Hera (also not swallowed), asks Rhea to give her the young Zeus, and Rhea gives Cronus a stone to swallow.
The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem attributed to Homer about the Trojan war and the battle over the City of Troy, in which Zeus plays a major part.
1st century BC) seems at one point to give Mount Ida as his birthplace, but later states he is born in Dicte, and the mythographer Apollodorus (first or second century
AD) similarly says he was born in a cave in Dicte.
 According to a scholion on Theocritus’ Idylls, when Hera was heading toward Mount Thornax alone, Zeus created a terrible storm and transformed himself into a cuckoo
bird who flew down and sat on her lap.
The earth itself prayed to Zeus, and in order to prevent further disaster, Zeus hurled a thunderbolt at Phaethon, killing him and saving the world from further harm.
 He also refers to the Kouretes “rais[ing] a great alarum”, and in doing so deceiving Cronus, and relates that when the Kouretes were carrying the newborn Zeus that
the umbilical cord fell away at the river Triton.
[‘1. British English /zjuːs/; American English /zuːs/
Attic–Ionic Greek: Ζεύς, romanized: Zeús Attic–Ionic pronunciation: [zděu̯s] or [dzěu̯s], Koine Greek pronunciation: [zeʍs], Modern Greek pronunciation: [zefs]; genitive: Δῐός, romanized:
Boeotian Aeolic and Laconian Doric Greek: Δεύς, romanized: Deús Doric Greek: [děu̯s]; genitive: Δέος, romanized: Déos [dé.os]
Greek: Δίας, romanized: Días Modern Greek: [ˈði.as̠]
2. The sculpture was presented to Louis XIV as Aesculapius
but restored as Zeus, ca. 1686, by Pierre Granier, who added the upraised right arm brandishing the thunderbolt. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Formerly in the ‘Allée Royale’, (Tapis Vert) in the Gardens of Versailles, now conserved in the Louvre
Museum (Official on-line catalog)
3. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b Thomas Berry (1996). Religions of India: Hinduism, Yoga, Buddhism. Columbia University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN
5. ^ Jump up to:a b T. N. Madan (2003). The Hinduism Omnibus. Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-19-566411-9.
6. ^ Jump up to:a b Sukumari Bhattacharji (2015). The Indian Theogony. Cambridge University Press. pp. 280–281.
Jump up to:a b Roshen Dalal (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 9788184752779. Entry: “Dyaus”
8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. “Zeus, n.” Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1921.
9. ^ Zeus in the American Heritage
10. ^ Jump up to:a b Hamilton, Edith (1942). Mythology (1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b Hard 2004, p. 79.
12. ^ Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Zeus.
13. ^ Homer, Il., Book V.
Plato, Symp., 180e.
15. ^ There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite’s origins: Hesiod’s Theogony claims that she was born from the foam of the sea after Cronos castrated Uranus, making her Uranus’s daughter, while Homer’s Iliad has
Aphrodite as the daughter of Zeus and Dione. A speaker in Plato’s Symposium offers that they were separate figures: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b Hesiod, Theogony 886–900.
17. ^ Homeric Hymns.
19. ^ Burkert, Greek Religion.
20. ^ See, e.g., Homer, Il., I.503 & 533.
21. ^ Pausanias, 2.24.2.
22. ^ Νεφεληγερέτα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
23. ^ Laërtius,
Diogenes (1972) . “1.11”. In Hicks, R.D. (ed.). Lives of Eminent Philosophers. “1.11”. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers (in Greek).
24. ^ Jump up to:a b “Zeus”. American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 3 July 2006.
25. ^ R.
S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 499.
26. ^ Harper, Douglas. “Jupiter”. Online Etymology Dictionary.
27. ^ Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. p. 321. ISBN 0-674-36280-2.
28. ^ “The Linear B word di-we”. “The Linear
B word di-wo”. Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages.
29. ^ “Plato’s Cratylus” by Plato, ed. by David Sedley, Cambridge University Press, 6 November 2003, p. 91
30. ^ Jevons, Frank Byron (1903). The Makers of Hellas. C. Griffin,
Limited. pp. 554–555.
31. ^ Joseph, John Earl (2000). Limiting the Arbitrary. ISBN 1556197497.
32. ^ “Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, Books I-V, book 5, chapter 72”. www.perseus.tufts.edu.
33. ^ Lactantius, Divine Institutes 1.11.1.
See Gantz, pp. 10–11; Hesiod, Theogony 159–83.
35. ^ Hard 2004, p. 67; Hansen, p. 67; Tripp, s.v. Zeus, p. 605; Caldwell, p. 9, table 12; Hesiod, Theogony 453–8. So too Apollodorus, 1.1.5; Diodorus Siculus, 68.1.
36. ^ Gantz, p. 41; Hard 2004,
p. 67–8; Grimal, s.v. Zeus, p. 467; Hesiod, Theogony 459–67. Compare with Apollodorus, 1.1.5, who gives a similar account, and Diodorus Siculus, 70.1–2, who doesn’t mention Cronus’ parents, but rather says that it was an oracle who gave the prophecy.
Cf. Apollodorus, 1.1.6, who says that Rhea was “enraged”.
38. ^ Hard 2004, p. 68; Gantz, p. 41; Smith, s.v. Zeus; Hesiod, Theogony 468–73.
39. ^ Hard 2004, p. 74; Gantz, p. 41; Hesiod, Theogony 474–9.
40. ^ Hard 2004, p. 74; Hesiod, Theogony
479–84. According to Hard 2004, the “otherwise unknown” Mount Aegaeon can “presumably … be identified with one of the various mountains near Lyktos”.
41. ^ Hansen, p. 67; Hard 2004, p. 68; Smith, s.v. Zeus; Gantz, p. 41; Hesiod, Theogony 485–91.
For iconographic representations of this scene, see Louvre G 366; Clark, p. 20, figure 2.1 and Metropolitan Museum of Art 06.1021.144; LIMC 15641; Beazley Archive 214648. According to Pausanias, 9.41.6, this event occurs at Petrachus, a “crag” nearby
to Chaeronea (see West 1966, p. 301 on line 485).
42. ^ West 1966, p. 291 on lines 453–506; Hard 2004, p. 75.
43. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 35, 50; Eumelus fr. 2 West, pp. 224, 225 [= fr. 10 Fowler, p. 109 = PEG fr. 18 (Bernabé, p. 114) = Lydus, De Mensibus
4.71]. According to West 2003, p. 225 n. 3, in this version he was born “probably on Mt. Sipylos”.
44. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 391; Grimal, s.v. Zeus, p. 467; Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus (1) 4–11 (pp. 36–9).
45. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 391; Diodorus Siculus,
46. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.6.
47. ^ Hard 2004, p. 68; Gantz, p. 41; Hesiod, Theogony 492–3: “the strength and glorious limbs of the prince increased quickly”.
48. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.6; Gantz, p. 42; West 1983, p. 133.
49. ^ Hard 2004,
p. 612 n. 53 to p. 75; Apollodorus, 1.1.7.
50. ^ Hansen, p. 216; Apollodorus, 1.1.7.
51. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 7.70.2; see also 7.65.4.
52. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 7.70.2–3.
53. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 7.65.4.
54. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 7.70.4.
Gantz, p. 42; Hyginus, Fabulae 139.
56. ^ Gantz, p. 42; Hard 2004, p. 75; Hyginus, Fabulae 139.
57. ^ Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 191 on line 182; West 1983, p. 133 n. 40; Hyginus, Fabulae 182 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 158).
58. ^ Hard 2004, p. 75–6;
Gantz, p. 42; Epimenides fr. 23 Diels, p. 193 [= Scholia on Aratus, 46]. Zeus later marks the event by placing the constellations of the Dragon, the Greater Bear and the Lesser Bear in the sky.
59. ^ Gantz, p. 41; Gee, p. 131–2; Frazer, p. 120;
Musaeus fr. 8 Diels, pp. 181–2 [= Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 13 (Hard 2015, p. 44; Olivieri, p. 17)]; Musaeus apud Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.13.6. According to Eratosthenes, Musaeus considers the she-goat to be a child of Helios, and to be “so terrifying
to behold” that the gods ask for it to be hidden in one of the caves in Crete; hence Earth places it in the care of Amalthea, who nurses Zeus on its milk.
60. ^ Hard 2004, p. 75; Antoninus Liberalis, 19.
61. ^ J. Paul Getty Museum 73.AA.32.
Gantz, p. 44; Hard 2004, p. 68; Hesiod, Theogony 492–7.
63. ^ Hard 2004, p. 68; Hesiod, Theogony 498–500.
64. ^ Hard 2004, p. 68; Gantz, p. 44; Hesiod, Theogony 501–6. The Cyclopes presumably remained trapped below the earth since being put there
by Uranus (Hard 2004, p. 68).
65. ^ Hard 2004, p. 68; Gantz, p. 45; Hesiod, Theogony 630–4.
66. ^ Hard 2004, p. 68; Hesiod, Theogony 624–9, 635–8. As Gantz, p. 45 notes, the Theogony is ambiguous as to whether the Hundred-Handers were freed before
the war or only during its tenth year.
67. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 639–53.
68. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 654–63.
69. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 687–735.
70. ^ Hard 2004, p. 69; Gantz, p. 44; Apollodorus, 1.2.1.
71. ^ Hard 2004, p. 69; Apollodorus, 1.2.1.
Hard 2004, p. 69; Apollodorus, 1.2.1.
73. ^ Gantz, p. 48; Hard 2004, p. 76; Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Zeus; Homer, Iliad 15.187–193; so too Apollodorus, 1.2.1; cf. Homeric Hymn to Demeter (2), 85–6.
74. ^ Hard 2004, p. 86; Hesiod, Theogony 183–7.
Hard 2004, p. 86; Gantz, p. 446.
76. ^ Gantz, p. 449; Hard 2004, p. 90; Apollodorus, 1.6.1.
77. ^ Hard 2004, p. 89; Gantz, p. 449; Apollodorus, 1.6.1.
78. ^ Hard 2004, p. 89; Gantz, p. 449; Salowey, p. 236; Apollodorus, 1.6.2. Compare with Pindar,
Pythian 8.12–8, who instead says that Porphyrion is killed by an arrow from Apollo.
79. ^ Ogden, pp. 72–3; Gantz, p. 48; Fontenrose, p. 71; Fowler, p. 27; Hesiod, Theogony 820–2. According to Ogden, Gaia “produced him in revenge against Zeus for
his destruction of … the Titans”. Contrastingly, according to the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (3), 305–55, Hera is the mother of Typhon without a father: angry at Zeus for birthing Athena by himself, she strikes the ground with her hand, praying to Gaia,
Uranus, and the Titans to give her a child more powerful than Zeus, and receiving her wish, she bears the monster Typhon (Fontenrose, p. 72; Gantz, p. 49; Hard 2004, p. 84); cf. Stesichorus fr. 239 Campbell, pp. 166, 167 [= PMG 239 (Page, p. 125)
= Etymologicum Magnum 772.49] (see Gantz, p. 49).
80. ^ Gantz, p. 49; Hesiod, Theogony 824–8.
81. ^ Fontenrose, p. 71; Hesiod, Theogony 836–8.
82. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 839–68. According to Fowler, p. 27, the monster’s easy defeat at the hands
of Zeus is “in keeping with Hesiod’s pervasive glorification of Zeus”.
83. ^ Ogden, p. 74; Gantz, p. 49; Epimenides FGrHist 457 F8 [= fr. 10 Fowler, p. 97 = fr. 8 Diels, p. 191].
84. ^ Fontenrose, p. 73; Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 356–64; Pindar,
Olympian 8.16–7; for a discussion of Aeschylus’ and Pindar’s accounts, see Gantz, p. 49.
85. ^ Apollodorus, 1.6.3.
86. ^ Gantz, p. 50; Fontenrose, p. 73.
87. ^ Hard 2004, p. 84; Fontenrose, p. 73; Gantz, p. 50.
88. ^ Hard 2004, p. 84; Fontenrose,
89. ^ Fontenrose, p. 73; Ogden, p. 42; Hard 2004, p. 84.
90. ^ Hard 2004, p. 84–5; Fontenrose, p. 73–4.
91. ^ Hard 2004, p. 85.
92. ^ Ogden, p. 74–5; Fontenrose, pp. 74–5; Lane Fox, p. 287; Gantz, p. 50.
93. ^ Gantz, p. 59; Hard 2004,
p. 82; Homer, Iliad 1.395–410.
94. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 901–905; Gantz, p. 52; Hard 2004, p. 78.
95. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 901–911; Hansen, p. 68.
96. ^ Hansen, p. 68.
97. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 53–62; Gantz, p. 54.
98. ^ Homeric Hymn to Apollo (3),
89–123; Hesiod, Theogony 912–920; Morford, p. 211.
99. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 921.
100. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 886–929 (Most, pp. 74, 75); Caldwell, p. 11, table 14.
101. ^ Jump up to:a b One of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at 358.
Of Zeus’ children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived ( 889), but the last to be born. Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena “from his head” ( 924).
103. ^ At 217 the Moirai are
the daughters of Nyx.
104. ^ Hephaestus is produced by Hera alone, with no father at 927–929. In the Iliad and the Odyssey, Hephaestus is apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
105. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.17.4
Homer, Iliad 4.441
107. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy, 8.424
108. ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idyll 2.12 referring to Sophron
109. ^ Iliad, Book 14, line 294
110. ^ Scholia on Theocritus’ Idylls 15.64
111. ^ Ptolemaeus Chennus, New History
Book 6, as epitomized by Patriarch Photius in his Myriobiblon 190.47
112. ^ Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica 3.1.84a-b; Hard 2004, p. 137
113. ^ Callimachus, Aetia fragment 48
114. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Library 2.5.11
115. ^ Apollodorus, 1.3.1
Hesiod, Theogony 938
117. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.361–369
118. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4.14.4
119. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 507-565
120. ^ Hesiod, Works and Days 60–105.
121. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.216–1.348
122. ^ Leeming, David
(2004). Flood | The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 9780195156690. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
123. ^ “The Gods in the Iliad”. department.monm.edu. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
124. ^ Homer (1990). The
Iliad. South Africa: Penguin Classics.
125. ^ Apollodorus, 2.48–77.
126. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 146.
127. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 179.
128. ^ Apollodorus, 3.43.
129. ^ Meisner, pp. 1, 5
130. ^ Jump up to:a b c West 1983, pp. 73–74; Meisner, p.
134; Orphic frr. 58 [= Athenagoras, Legatio Pro Christianis 20.2] 153 Kern.
131. ^ Apollodorus, 3.76.
132. ^ Apollodorus, 3.13.5.
133. ^ Pindar, Isthmian odes 8.25
134. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.4
135. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica
136. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 285
137. ^ Hard 2004, p. 554; Apollodorus, Epitome 1.20
138. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.747–2.400; Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.42.2; Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38.142–435
139. ^ Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods Zeus and the
140. ^ Hard 2004, p. 247; Apollodorus, 2.4.8.
141. ^ Hard 2004, p. 303; Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Antiope; Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes, 4.1090.
142. ^ Gantz, p. 726; Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.401–530; Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.1.2; Apollodorus,
3.8.2; Hansen, p. 119; Grimal, s.v. Callisto, p. 86; Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Callisto.
143. ^ Apollodorus, 3.8.2; Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Callisto.
144. ^ Hard 2004, p. 238
145. ^ Hard 2004, p. 337; Lane Fox, p. 199.
146. ^ Hard 2004, p.
522; Ovid, Metamorphoses 10.155–6; Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 10 (4).
147. ^ Hard 2004, p. 137
148. ^ Hard 2004, p. 439; Euripides, Helen 16–22.
149. ^ Hard 2004, p. 438; Cypria fr. 10 West, pp. 88, 89 [= Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 8.334b–d].
Hard 2004, p.244; Hesiod, Theogony 943.
151. ^ Hansen, p. 68; Hard 2004, p. 78; Hesiod, Theogony 912.
152. ^ Hard 2004, p. 78; Hesiod, Theogony 901–911; Hansen, p. 68.
153. ^ Hard 2004, p. 79; Hesiod, Theogony 921.
154. ^ Hard 2004, p. 78;
Hesiod, Theogony 912–920; Morford, p. 211.
155. ^ Hard 2004, p. 80; Hesiod, Theogony 938.
156. ^ Hard 2004, p. 77; Hesiod, Theogony 886–900.
157. ^ Hard 2004, p. 78; Hesiod, Theogony 53–62; Gantz, p. 54.
158. ^ Hard 2004, p. 80; Hesiod, Theogony
159. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 901–905; Gantz, p. 52; Hard 2004, p. 78.
160. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155
161. ^ Pindar, Olympian 12.1–2; Gantz, p. 151.
162. ^ Gantz, pp. 26, 40; Musaeus fr. 16 Diels, p. 183; Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica
163. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.16; Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 9.392e (pp. 320, 321).
164. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Akragantes; Smith, s.v. Acragas.
165. ^ Strabo, Geographica 10.3.19
166. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.59.
Scholiast on Pindar, Pythian Odes 3.177; Hesychius
168. ^ Homer, Iliad 5.370; Apollodorus, 1.3.1
169. ^ West 1983, p. 73; Orphic Hymn to the Graces (60), 1–3 (Athanassakis and Wolkow, p. 49).
170. ^ Apollodorus, 3.12.6; Grimal, s.v. Asopus,
p. 63; Smith, s.v. Asopus.
171. ^ FGrHist 1753 F1b.
172. ^ Smith, s.v. Agdistis.
173. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1.27.1; Grimal, s.v. Manes, p. 271.
174. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14.193.
175. ^ Jump up to:a b Murray, John
(1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope’s Homer, and Dryden’s Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London. p. 8.
176. ^ Eleutheria is the Greek counterpart of Libertas
(Liberty), daughter of Jove and Juno as cited in Hyginus, Fabulae Preface.
177. ^ Hard 2004, 141; Gantz, p. 74.
178. ^ Apollodorus, 1.4.1; Hard 2004, p. 216.
179. ^ Cypria, fr. 10 West, pp. 88, 89; Hard 2004, p. 438.
180. ^ Grimal, s.v. Zagreus,
p. 466; Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6.155.
181. ^ West 1983, p. 73; Orphic fr. 58 Kern [= Athenagoras, Legatio Pro Christianis 20.2]; Meisner, p. 134.
182. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.21-23.
183. ^ Hard 2004, p. 46; Keightley, p. 55.
184. ^ Smith,
185. ^ Homeric Hymn to Selene (32), 15–16; Hyginus, Fabulae Preface; Hard 2004, p. 46; Grimal, s.v. Selene, p. 415.
186. ^ Apollodorus, 1.1.3.
187. ^ Smith, s.v. Thaleia (3); Oxford Classical Dictionary, s.v. Palici, p. 1100; Servius,
On Aeneid, 9.581–4.
188. ^ Apollodorus, 3.12.6; Hard 2004, p. 530–531.
189. ^ FGrHist 299 F5 [= Scholia on Pindar’s Olympian 9.104a].
190. ^ Homer, Odyssey 11.260–3; Brill’s New Pauly s.v. Amphion; Grimal, s.v. Amphion, p. 38.
191. ^ Herodotus,
192. ^ Apollodorus, 3.8.2; Pausanias, 8.3.6; Hard 2004, p. 540; Gantz, pp. 725–726.
193. ^ Pausanias, 2.30.3; March, s.v. Britomartis, p. 88; Smith, s.v. Britomartis.
194. ^ Jump up to:a b Apollodorus, 3.12.1; Hard 2004, 521.
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3.195.
196. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.48.2.
197. ^ Hard 2004, p. 533
198. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.55.5
199. ^ Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6.48ff., 6.651ff
200. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium,
201. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32.70
202. ^ Murray, John (1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope’s Homer, and Dryden’s Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London.
203. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 5.48.1; Smith, s.v. Saon.
204. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, 13.
205. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, 36; Hyginus Fabulae 82; Pausanias, 2.22.3; Gantz, p. 536; Hard 2004, p. 502; March, s.v. Tantalus, p. 366.
207. ^ Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Themisto; Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Arkadia [= FGrHist 334 F75].
208. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Torrhēbos, citing Hellanicus and Nicolaus
209. ^ Pausanias, 1.40.1.
210. ^ Stephanus
of Byzantium, s.v. Ōlenos.
211. ^ Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Calyce (1); Smith, s.v. Endymion.
212. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Pisidia
213. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Pisidia; Grimal, s.v. Solymus, p. 424.
214. ^ Homer, Iliad
14.319–20; Smith, s.v. Perseus (1).
215. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155; Grimal, s.v. Pirithous, p. 374.
216. ^ Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Tityus; Hard 2004, pp. 147–148; FGrHist 3 F55 [= Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes, 1.760–2b (Wendel, p. 65)].
Gantz, p. 210; Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Minos; Homer, Iliad 14.32–33; Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 89 Most, pp. 172–5 [= fr. 140 Merkelbach-West, p. 68].
218. ^ Homer, Iliad 14.32–33; Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 89 Most, pp. 172–5 [= fr. 140
Merkelbach-West, p. 68]; Gantz, p. 210; Smith, s.v. Rhadamanthus.
219. ^ Smith, s.v. Sarpedon (1); Brill’s New Pauly, s.v. Sarpedon (1); Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 89 Most, pp. 172–5 [= fr. 140 Merkelbach-West, p. 68].
220. ^ Scholia on Iliad,
221. ^ Jump up to:a b Tzetzes on Lycophron, 1206 (pp. 957–962).[non-primary source needed]
222. ^ Photios (1824). “190.489R”. In Bekker, August Immanuel (ed.). Myriobiblon (in Greek). Vol. Tomus alter. Berlin: Ge. Reimer. p. 152a. At the
Internet Archive. “190.152a” (PDF). Myriobiblon (in Greek). Interreg Δρόμοι της πίστης – Ψηφιακή Πατρολογία. 2006. p. 163. At khazarzar.skeptik.net.
223. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 6
224. ^ Pausanias, 10.12.1; Smith, s.v. Lamia (1).
Homer, Iliad 6.191–199; Hard 2004, p. 349; Smith, s.v. Sarpe’don (2).
226. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.16.
227. ^ Eustathius ad Homer, p. 1688
228. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.1; Gantz, p. 198.
229. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 5
230. ^ Ioannes Lydus,
De Mensibus 1.13
231. ^ Servius, Commentary on Virgil’s Aeneid 1. 242
232. ^ Apollodorus, 1.7.2; Hyginus, Fabulae 155.
233. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155.
234. ^ Pindar, Olympian Ode 9.58.
235. ^ Parada, s.vv. Hellen (1), p. 86, Pyrrha (1), p.
159; Apollodorus, 1.7.2; Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 5 Most, pp. 46, 47 [= Scholia on Homer’s Odyssey 10.2]; West 1985, pp. 51, 53, 56, 173, table 1.
236. ^ John Lydus, De mensibus 4.67.
237. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 3 as cited in Constantine
Porphyrogenitus, De Thematibus, 2 (p. 86 sq. Pertusi).
238. ^ Homer, Iliad 19.91.
239. ^ “Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, book 2, line 887”. www.perseus.tufts.edu.
240. ^ Hymn 30.6, as cited by Graf and Johnston, Ritual Texts, pp. 123–124 (Hymn
29 in the translation of Thomas Taylor).
241. ^ Homer, Iliad 9.502; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 10.301 (pp. 440, 441); Smith, s.v. Litae.
242. ^ Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5.205
243. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Tainaros
245. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.81.4
246. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 195 in which Orion was produced from a bull’s hide urinated by three gods, Zeus, Poseidon and Hermes
247. ^ The bust below the base of the neck
is eighteenth century. The head, which is roughly worked at back and must have occupied a niche, was found at Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli and donated to the British Museum by John Thomas Barber Beaumont in 1836. BM 1516. (British Museum, A Catalogue
of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1904).
248. ^ Homer, Iliad 1.202, 2.157, 2.375; Pindar, Isthmian Odes 4.99; Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.13.7.
249. ^ Spanh. ad Callim. hymn. in Jov, 49
250. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867).
“Aegiduchos”. In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. I. Boston. p. 26.
251. ^ Hanson, Victor Davis (18 December 2007). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power. Knopf Doubleday
Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-42518-8.
252. ^ Strab. xii. p. 574
253. ^ Jump up to:a b Cook, Arthur Bernard (1914), Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, vol. I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 549 ff..
“Suda, alpha, 1155”.
255. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “Zeus Titles & Epithets – Ancient Greek Religion”. www.theoi.com. Theoi Project.
256. ^ “Zeus”. www.perseus.tufts.edu. William J. Slater, Lexicon to Pindar.
257. ^ Libanius (2000).
Antioch as a Centre of Hellenic Culture as Observed by Libanius. Translated with an introduction by A.F. Norman. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-85323-595-3.
258. ^ “Capitains Nemo”. cts.perseids.org.
259. ^ “Project MUSE
– Ancient Antioch”. muse.jhu.edu.
260. ^ “Suda, kappa, 1521”.
261. ^ Δικταῖος in Liddell and Scott.
262. ^ “Suda, delta, 1446”.
263. ^ “A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), Vinum”.
264. ^ Jump up to:a b Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists,
265. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Eilapinastes
266. ^ “Agora Monument Stoa of Zeus – ASCSA.net”. agora.ascsa.net.
267. ^ “ε 804”.
268. ^ Plutarch, Theseus, 14
269. ^ Suda “ε 3269”.
270. ^ Brill, Idaeus
“Suda, kappa, 887”.
272. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, leukaia
273. ^ Zeus Meilichios shrine (Athens)
274. ^ “Pausanias, Description of Greece, *)hliakw=n *a, chapter 15, section 5”. www.perseus.tufts.edu.
276. ^ “CGRN File”. cgrn.ulg.ac.be.
277. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, PANAMARA (Bağyaka) Turkey
278. ^ Ancient Inscription about Zeus Panamaros
279. ^ “Temple of Zeus Sosipolis from Magnesia
on the Maeander”.
280. ^ “Plutarch, Parallela minora, section 3”. www.perseus.tufts.edu.
281. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). “Gaza” . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.; Johannes Hahn: Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt;
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282. ^ Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon & Schuster) 1939:23.
283. ^ Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, “The Minoan belief-system” (Routledge) 1990:125
Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15.
285. ^ A.B. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398.
286. ^ Dietrich 1973, noting Martin P. Nilsson, Minoan-Mycenaean Religion, and
Its Survival in Greek Religion 1950:551 and notes.
287. ^ “Professor Stylianos Alexiou reminds us that there were other divine boys who survived from the religion of the pre-Hellenic period — Linos, Ploutos and Dionysos — so not all the young male
deities we see depicted in Minoan works of art are necessarily Velchanos” (Castleden) 1990:125
288. ^ Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus
(noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78).
289. ^ “This annually reborn god of vegetation also experienced the other parts of the vegetation cycle: holy marriage and annual death when he was thought to disappear from the earth” (Dietrich 1973:15).
In the founding myth of Lycaon’s banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice, perhaps one of his sons, Nyctimus or Arcas. Zeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia
can have been little more than a formula.
291. ^ A morphological connection to lyke “brightness” may be merely fortuitous.
292. ^ Modern archaeologists have found no trace of human remains among the sacrificial detritus, Walter Burkert, “Lykaia
and Lykaion”, Homo Necans, tr. by Peter Bing (University of California) 1983, p. 90.
293. ^ Pausanias, 8.38.
294. ^ Republic 565d-e
295. ^ A. B. Cook (1914), Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, Vol. I, p.63, Cambridge University Press
Strabo, Geographica 14.1.42.
297. ^ A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), Hecatomphonia
298. ^ Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898), Hecatomphonia
299. ^ Perseus Encyclopedia, Hecatomphonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece, 4.19.3
301. ^ Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vi. 162
302. ^ Hesiod, according to a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes. Argonautika, ii. 297
303. ^ Odyssey 14.326-7
304. ^ Pausanias, 3.18.
305. ^ “In the art of Gandhara
Zeus became the inseparable companion of the Buddha as Vajrapani.” in Freedom, Progress, and Society, K. Satchidananda Murty, R. Balasubramanian, Sibajiban Bhattacharyya, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1986, p. 97
306. ^ 2 Maccabees 6:2
David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191.
308. ^ Devdutt Pattanaik’s Olympus: An Indian Retelling of Greek Myths
309. ^ Sick, David H. (2004), “Mit(h)ra(s) and the Myths of the Sun”, Numen, 51 (4):
432–467, JSTOR 3270454
310. ^ Ljuba Merlina Bortolani, Magical Hymns from Roman Egypt: A Study of Greek and Egyptian Traditions of Divinity, Cambridge University Press, 13 October 2016
311. ^ West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry
and Myth (PDF). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
312. ^ Cook, p. 196
313. ^ Euripides, Medea 1258; The Play of Texts and Fragments: Essays in Honour of Martin Cropp by J. Robert
C. Cousland, James, 2009, p. 161
314. ^ Cook, pp 186–187
315. ^ Jump up to:a b Cook, pp 188–189
316. ^ Cook, p. 190
317. ^ Cook, p. 193
318. ^ Cook, p. 194
319. ^ Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks 1951:110.
320. ^ In Fourth Tractate
‘Problems of the Soul’ The Demiurge is identified as Zeus.10. “When under the name of Zeus we are considering the Demiurge we must leave out all notions of stage and progress, and recognize one unchanging and timeless life.”
321. ^ “Online Bible
Study Tools – Library of Resources”. biblestudytools.com.
322. ^ The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, edited by J. Orr, 1960, Vol. III, p. 1944.
323. ^ “The Second Book of the Maccabees
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324. ^ George R. S. Mead (1963). Pistis Sophia. Jazzybee Verlag. p. 190. ISBN 9783849687090.
325. ^ Rochim, Fatchur (8 November 2011). “Ini Dia Aktor-Aktor Yang Pernah Memerankan
Dewa Zeus “. KapanLagi (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2019.
326. ^ “Zei, semizei, eroi… “. Cinemagia (in Romanian). 24 July 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
327. ^ Piantadosi, Roger (30 March 2016). “Angus Macfadyen, \ ‘Unhinged’ in Virginia
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328. ^ Canby, Vincent (12 June 1981). “\ ‘CLASH OF TITANS’ WITH OLIVIER AS ZEUS “. NY Times. p. 6. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
329. ^ “From Schindler to Zeus “. Telegraph India. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
330. ^ Dittman, Earl (27 June 2012). “Liam Neeson digs playing
a god in \ ‘Wrath Of The Titans’ “. Digital Journal. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
331. ^ Wigler, Josh (12 August 2010). “Liam Neeson Returns As Zeus For \ ‘Wrath Of The Titans’
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332. ^ Lipp, Chaz (21 August 2014). “Blu-ray Review: Disney\ ‘s Hercules (1997)”. The Morton Report. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
333. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 14, 2010). Roger Ebert’s Movie Yearbook 2011. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 9781449406189 – via Google Books.
Becker, Josh (1 May 2008). Rushes. Wildside Press LLC. p. 145. ISBN 9780809573004.
335. ^ Clarke, Stewart (19 July 2017). “Hakeem Kae-Kazim to Play Zeus in BBC and Netflix Series ‘Troy'”. Variety. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
“Netflix Orders ‘Gods & Heroes’ Greek Mythology Anime Series”. Deadline.com. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
337. ^ Fermin, Margret (23 April 2018). “God of War Cast – Who Are The Voice Actors (2018)?”. PlayStation Universe. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
338. ^ Radcliffe, Noam (31 December 2018).
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339. ^ “Age of Mythology”. p. 23 – via webarchive.org.
340. ^ “Age of Mythology Wiki Guide: The Major Gods”. IGN. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
341. ^ A Point of View: The euro ‘s strange stories, BBC, retrieved 20 November 2011
342. ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod’s Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
343. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
344. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced
by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
345. ^ According to Hesiod\ ‘s Theogony, of Zeus’ children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her (886–890), later after mentioning the
birth of his other children, Hesiod says that Zeus himself gave birth to Athena “from his head” (924–926), see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
346. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus ‘ severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
347. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
b. Antoninus Liberalis, The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis: A Translation with a Commentary, edited and translated by Francis Celoria, Routledge, 1992. ISBN 978-0-415-06896-3. Online version at ToposText.
c. Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
d. Athanassakis, Apostolos N., and Benjamin M. Wolkow, The Orphic Hymns, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013) ISBN 978-1-4214-0882-8. Google Books.
e. Athenaeus, The Learned Banqueters, Volume IV: Books 8-10.420e, edited and translated by S. Douglas Olson, Loeb Classical Library No. 235, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-674-99626-7. Online version at Harvard University Press.
f. Bernabé, Alberto, Poetae epici Graeci: Testimonia et fragmenta, Pars I, Bibliotheca Teubneriana, Stuttgart and Leipzig, Teubner, 1996. ISBN 978-3-815-41706-5. Online version at De Gruyter.
g. Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World. Antiquity, Volume 15, Tuc-Zyt, editors: Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, Brill, 2009. ISBN 978-90-04-14220-6. Online version at Brill.
h. Burkert, Walter, (1985) . Greek Religion, especially section III.ii.1 (Harvard University Press)
i. Caldwell, Richard, Hesiod’s Theogony, Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company (June 1, 1987). ISBN 978-0-941051-00-2. Internet Archive.
j. Callimachus, Callimachus and Lycophron, with an English Translation by A. W. Mair; Aratus, with an English Translation by G. R. Mair, London:
W. Heinemann, New York: G. P. Putnam, 1921. Online version at Harvard University Press. Internet Archive.
k. Campbell, David A., Greek Lyric, Volume III: Stesichorus, Ibycus, Simonides, and Others, Loeb Classical Library No. 476, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
Harvard University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0674995253. Online version at Harvard University Press.
l. Cook, Arthur Bernard, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion (3 volume set), (1914–1925). New York, Bibilo & Tannen: 1964.
m. Cook, Arthur Bernard (1914).
Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, Volume I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky. Cambridge University Press.
1. Volume 1: Zeus, God of the Bright Sky, Biblo-Moser, 1 June 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0148-9 (reprint)
2. Volume 2: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (Thunder
and Lightning), Biblo-Moser, 1 June 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0156-X
3. Volume 3: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes, clouds, wind, dew, rain, meteorites)
n. Cicero, Marcus Tullius, De Natura Deorum in Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods. Academics,
translated by H. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library No. 268, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, first published 1933, revised 1951. ISBN 978-0-674-99296-2. Online version at Harvard University Press. Internet Archive.
o. Diels, Hermann
A., Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Volume II, Berlin, Weidmann, 1912. Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/merelymel/2927020075/ ‘]