In an article for the British Film Institute, “10 great prisoner of war films”, updated in August 2018, Samuel Wigley wrote that watching films like The Great Escape
and the 1955 British film The Colditz Story, “for all their moments of terror and tragedy, is to delight in captivity in times of war as a wonderful game for boys, an endless Houdini challenge to slip through the enemy’s fingers.
Many details of the actual escape attempt were changed for the film, including the roles of American personnel in both the planning and the escape.
The prisoners’ escape committee, the “X” Organization, led by “Big X”, RAF Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett, a former prisoner of the Gestapo, and with the support of senior
British officer Group Captain Ramsey, mount an audacious plan to tunnel out of the camp and break out 250 men – not just to escape, but so that German manpower will be wasted on finding POWs.
However, Walters points out that an historical account says that one of the two men said “yes” in English in response to a Kripo man’s questions without any mention of “good
luck” and notes that as Scheidhauser was French, and Bushell’s first language was English, it seems likely that if a slip did take place, it was made by Bushell himself, and says the “good luck” scene should be regarded as fiction, and furthermore,
a slur upon the Frenchman.
 The Great Escape is also noted for its motorcycle chase and jump scene, which is considered one of the best stunts ever performed.
He won the Knight’s Cross before his capture and was the cast member who had actually performed many of the exploits shown in the film.
 Disc one Original Motion Picture Soundtrack: “Main Title”; “At First Glance”; “Premature Plans”; “If At Once”; “Forked”; “Cooler”; “Mole”; “”X”/Tonight We Dig”;
“The Scrounger/Blythe”; “Water Faucet”; “Interruptus”; “The Plan/The Sad Ives”; “Green Thumbs”; “Hilts And Ives”; “Cave In”; “Restless Men”; “Booze”; “”Yankee Doodle””; “Discovery” Disc two Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (Continued):
“Various Troubles”; “Panic”; “Pin Trick”; “Hendley’s Risk”; “Released Again/Escape Time”; “20 Feet Short”; “Foul Up”; “At The Station”; “On The Road”; “The Chase/First Casualty”; “Flight Plan”; “More Action/Hilts Captured”; “Road’s End”; “Betrayal”;
“Three Gone/Home Again”; “Finale/The Cast” Reception Box office The Great Escape grossed $11.7 million at the box office, after a budget of $4 million.
 The film is accurate in showing that only three escapees made home runs, although the people who made them differed from those in the film.
The plotline follows that of the film of the same name, except there are also levels featuring some of the characters’ first captures and early escape attempts, as well as
a changed ending.
Casting Steve McQueen (left) with Wally Floody, a former Canadian POW who was part of the real Great Escape and acted as a technical advisor in production of the film
Steve McQueen has been credited with the most significant performance.
However, McQueen and Australian Motocross champion Tim Gibbes both performed the stunt on camera for fun, and according to second unit director Robert Relyea, the stunt in
the final cut of the movie could have been performed by any of the three men.
 Other media Sequel Main article: The Great Escape II: The Untold Story A fictional, made-for-television sequel, The Great Escape II: The Untold Story, was released
in 1988, with different actors including Christopher Reeve in the leading role, and directed by Jud Taylor (who played 2nd Lt. Goff in the 1963 film).
 When Ramsey first meets Von Luger, Luger warns him that although the newly arriving prisoners are well-known for wreaking havoc throughout the Reich with their constant
camp breakouts, they will have no success at the new camp.
 Modern appraisals In a 2006 poll in the United Kingdom, regarding the family film that television viewers would most want to see on Christmas Day, The Great Escape
came in third, and was first among the choices of male viewers.
 Another officer who is likely to have inspired the character of Ramsey was Wing Commander Harry Day.
The film has kept the memory of the 50 executed airmen alive for decades and has made their story known worldwide, if in a distorted form.
He described The Great Escape as “the epitome of the war-is-fun action film”, which became “a fixture of family TV viewing”.
 British author Guy Walters notes that a pivotal scene in the film where MacDonald blunders by replying in English to a suspicious Gestapo officer saying, “Good luck”,
is now so strongly imprinted that historians have accepted it as a real event, and that it was Bushell’s partner Bernard Scheidhauer who made the error.
Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and former miner who was the real-life “tunnel king”, was engaged as a technical advisor for the film.
• Richard Attenborough as Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett ‘Big X’: an ambitious RAF officer, who has developed an intense hatred for the Nazis following his stay with the Gestapo.
According to the veterans, many details of the first half depicting life in the camp were authentic, e.g.
 • In the British television comedy series Mitchell & Webb, a sketch called “Cheesoid” features a scene where a character who has lost their sense of smell locates a clove
of garlic deliberately placed beforehand on the floor, in the same way that Blythe places the pin on the floor in the film.
The work noise is covered by the prisoner choir led by Flight Lieutenant Dennis Cavendish, who also does surveys to measure the tunnel.
 The film omits the crucial role that Canadians played in building the tunnels and in the escape itself.
Ashley-Pitt is shot and killed at a railway station when he causes a distraction to save MacDonald and Bartlett but they are recaptured after a Gestapo officer tricks them
into speaking English.
 This was the film that first brought Attenborough to common notice in the United States.
He surrendered to British forces and then spent two years in a POW facility in London known as the London Cage.
In reality, the forgers received a great deal of assistance from Germans who lived many hundreds of miles away on the other side of the country.
 Historical accuracy The film was largely fictional, with changes made to increase its drama and appeal to an American audience, and to serve as vehicle for its box-office
• Charles Bronson as Flight Lieutenant Danny Welinski ‘Tunnel King’: a Polish emigré who escaped Nazi-held Poland and went to England to continue the fight against the Nazis.
The screenwriters significantly increased the involvement of American POWs; a few American officers in the camp initially helped dig the tunnels and worked on the early plans.
Cast • Steve McQueen as Captain Virgil Hilts ‘The Cooler King’: one of three Americans in the camp, Hilts irritates guards with frequent escape attempts and an irreverent
attitude, to the point that he is regularly confined in isolation in the cooler.
However, they were moved away seven months before the escape, which ended their involvement.
• David McCallum as Lieutenant-Commander Eric Ashley-Pitt ‘Dispersal’: a Fleet Air Arm officer who finds an ingenious way to get rid of the dirt being brought up from the
The film suggests that the forgers were able to make near-exact replicas of just about any pass that was used in Nazi Germany.
The last part of the tunnel is completed on the scheduled night, March 24, 1944, and despite some mishaps, such as the tunnel being 20 feet (6 m) short, 76 prisoners, including
Bartlett, MacDonald, Hendley, Blythe, Hilts, Ashley-Pitt, Danny, Willie, Sedgwick, Cavendish, Nimmo and Haynes, escape out the tunnel, aided by Hilts using 30 feet of rope as a guide, and an air-raid blackout.
The Great Escape was made by The Mirisch Company, released by United Artists, and produced and directed by John Sturges.
 However, in 2016, the sons of Elmer Bernstein openly criticized the use of the Great Escape theme by the Vote Leave campaign in the UK Brexit referendum, saying “Our
father would never have allowed UKIP to use his music” because he would have strongly opposed the party.
However, the escape attempts ultimately end when an impatient Griffith exits the tunnel in view of a guard, and is captured immediately.
 In 1963, The New York Times critic Bosley Crowther wrote: “But for much longer than is artful or essential, The Great Escape grinds out its tormenting story without a
peek beneath the surface of any man, without a real sense of human involvement.
 The real escape was by largely British and other Allied personnel, with the exception of American Johnnie Dodge, who was a British officer.
One truck contains 20 of the prisoners who are invited to stretch their legs in a field, whereupon they are all machine gunned in a single massacre, with the implication that
the other two have the same manner; in reality, the POWs were shot individually or in pairs.
 Accolades • Nominated Academy Award for Film Editing (Ferris Webster) • Nominated Golden Globe Award for Best Picture • Winner Moscow International Film Festival
Best Actor (Steve McQueen) • Nominated Moscow International Film Festival Grand Prix (John Sturges) • Selected National Board of Review Top Ten Films of Year • Nominated Writers Guild of America Best Written American Drama (James Clavell,
W. R. Burnett) (Screenplay Adaptation) • 19th place in AFI’s 100 Years…100 Thrills Legacy On 24 March 2014, the 70th anniversary of the escape, the RAF staged a commemoration of the escape attempt, with 50 serving personnel each carrying
a photograph of one of the shot men.
He was captured in the St. Louis train station during one escape attempt.
American Flight Lieutenant Bob Hendley can find anything, from a camera to identity cards.
• James Coburn as Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick ‘The Manufacturer’: an Australian officer who constructs objects necessary to implement the escape.
The men organize into teams, simultaneously working on three tunnels, “Tom”, “Dick”, and “Harry”.
After hoarding potatoes, Hilts, Hendley and American Second Lieutenant Goff concoct moonshine from a home made still and celebrate the Fourth of July with the entire camp.
Several German guards, who were openly anti-Nazi, also willingly gave the prisoners items and assistance of any kind to aid their escape.
On June 20, 1943, Bartlett asks USAAF Captain Virgil Hilts, who is attempting escapes with Scottish Flying Officer Archie Ives RAF but being constantly imprisoned in solitary
confinement in the “cooler”, to help in the escape by getting out through the barbed wire, scouting out the area, and then allowing himself to be recaptured; Hilts refuses.
The film depicts a heavily fictionalized version of the escape, with numerous compromises for its commercial appeal, such as focusing more on American involvement in the escape.
Dai Nimmo and Haynes are in charge of diverting the guards’ attention to other things in the camp in order to pull off the more risky parts of the operation unnoticed.
 In popular culture • The films Chicken Run, Reservoir Dogs, the 1998 remake of The Parent Trap, Top Secret!, Charlie’s Angels, The Tao of Steve, and Naked Gun 33
1/3: The Final Insult all contain references or homages to the film.
• Robert Graf as Werner ‘The Ferret’: a young, naive guard, with whom Hendley forms a friendship, which he exploits as a means of obtaining travel documents and other needed
Hilts volunteers to provide reconnaissance from outside the camp and Bartlett switches the prisoners’ efforts to “Harry”, after the information Hilts brings back is used to
create maps to guide the escapers.
The majority of the POWs were killed by pistol shots taken by Gestapo officers; however, at least ten of them were killed in a manner like that portrayed in the film: Dutchy
Swain, Chaz Hall, Brian Evans, Wally Valenta, George McGill, Pat Langford, Edgar Humphreys, Adam Kolanowski, Bob Stewart and Henry “Hank” Birkland.
 The Great Escape emerged as one of the highest-grossing films of the year, winning McQueen the award for Best Actor at the Moscow International Film Festival, and is
now considered a classic.
 The film is not a true sequel, as it dramatizes the escape itself just as the original film does, although mostly using the real names of the individuals involved (whereas
the original film fictionalized them and used composite characters).
When the Gestapo orders that Bartlett receive strict confinement, von Luger makes a passing note of it and instead shows sympathy for Bartlett.
 Although 76 POWs escaped the film only shows about 30 escaping through the tunnel.
Bartlett, a veteran escaper, is the ringleader, ‘Big X’, of the camp escape committee, the “X” Organization and declares his intention to organize a massive breakout of 250
men; it is their duty to harass, confound and confuse the enemy.
Richard Attenborough’s Sqn Ldr Roger Bartlett RAF, “Big X”, was based on Roger Bushell, the South African-born British POW who was the mastermind of the real Great Escape.
The film is based on Paul Brickhill’s 1950 non-fiction book of the same name, a firsthand account of the mass escape by British Commonwealth prisoners of war from German POW
camp Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), in the Nazi Germany province of Lower Silesia.
Some, such as Frank Knight, gave up forging because of the strain, but he certainly did not suffer the same ocular fate as the character of Colin Blythe in the film.
 He had been a POW in Russia during World War II and had escaped by walking hundreds of miles to the German border.
 Insurance concerns prevented McQueen from performing the film’s notable motorcycle leap, which was done by his friend and fellow cycle enthusiast Bud Ekins, who resembled
McQueen from a distance.
 Ex-POWs asked film-makers to exclude details about the help they received from their home countries, such as maps, papers, and tools hidden in gift packages, lest it
jeopardise future POW escapes.
On the orders of Adolf Hitler, the Gestapo murder 48 of the prisoners, including Bartlett, MacDonald, Cavendish and Haynes, on the pretext that they were trying to escape,
bringing the total dead to 50.
• Robert Desmond as Griffith ‘Tailor’, a British officer responsible for supplying clothes for the POWs for the escape.
• Gordon Jackson as Flight Lieutenant Andy MacDonald ‘Intelligence’: Bartlett’s second-in-command in planning the escape.
The escape of Danny and Willie in the film is based on two Norwegians who escaped by boat to Sweden, Per Bergsland and Jens Müller.
 • In the film Escape from Alcatraz, the warden’s line, “Alcatraz was built to keep all the rotten eggs in one basket” appears to resemble Von Luger’s line, “We have,
in effect, put all our rotten eggs in one basket.”
[‘o “Progressive (High) Myopia”. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. Archived from the original on September 28, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2020. “Progressive myopia”, also known as degenerative myopia, is a condition that
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o ^ In the film, while asking for an air pump, Bartlett refers to Sedgwick as “Bluey”. “Bluey” is an affectionate term for a person with red hair, found in Australian slang in the first half of the twentieth century. The
consequence of Bartlett’s use of the term, though made in support of the character, was too subtle for wider audiences, and the credit of “Louis” is translated in the subtitles for DVD and appears for Sedgwick on many lists.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/15481483@N06/8209458141/’]