Over time, this issue was eliminated by switch billing instead of billing at the SMSC and by new features within SMSCs to allow blocking of foreign mobile
users sending messages through it.
 Uses Text messaging is most often used between private mobile phone users, as a substitute for voice calls in situations where voice communication is impossible
or undesirable (e.g., during a school class or a work meeting).
 As of 2007 text messaging was the most widely used mobile data service, with 74% of all mobile phone users worldwide, or 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion phone subscribers,
at the end of 2007 being active users of the Short Message Service.
Users should rest assured, that all online or available users on the group received the message and that re-sending the message will only result in some participants receiving
the message multiple times.
An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international mobile number format, e.g., +44 7624 805000, or geographic numbers that can handle voice and SMS, e.g.,
01133203040), which can be used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications, such as TV voting, product promotions and campaigns.
Services that provide bulk text message sending are also becoming a popular way for clubs, associations, and advertisers to reach a group of opt-in subscribers quickly.
 In China, SMS is very popular and has brought service providers significant profit (18 billion short messages were sent in 2001).
That said, while usually presented to the user simply as a uniform “mail” service (and most users are unaware of the distinction), the operators may still internally transmit
the content as short messages, especially if the destination is on the same network.
In Finland, which has very high mobile phone ownership rates, some TV channels began “SMS chat”, which involved sending short messages to a phone number, and the messages
would be shown on TV.
This indicates participants make new relationships with face-to-face communication at an early stage, but use text messaging to increase their contact later on.
There are also free SMS services available, which are often sponsored, that allow sending and receiving SMS from a PC connected to the Internet.
The age that a child receives his/her first cell phone has also decreased, making text messaging a popular way of communicating.
 In 1998, Philippine mobile service providers launched SMS more widely across the country, with initial television marketing campaigns targeting hearing-impaired
Almost every time, the messages contained fewer than 160 characters, thus giving the basis for the limit one could type via text messaging.
Many operate text-in services on short codes or mobile number ranges, whereas others use lower-cost geographic text-in numbers.
Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet connection.
 Outside the United States, premium short messages are increasingly being used for “real-world” services.
When Radiolinja’s domestic competitor, Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) also launched SMS text messaging in 1995 and the two networks offered cross-network SMS functionality,
Finland became the first nation where SMS text messaging was offered on a competitive as well as on a commercial basis.
The service was initially free with subscriptions, but Filipinos quickly exploited the feature to communicate for free instead of using voice calls, which they would be charged
Popularity has grown to a sufficient extent that the term texting (used as a verb meaning the act of mobile phone users sending short messages back and forth) has entered
the common lexicon.
Research suggests that Internet-based mobile messaging will have grown to equal the popularity of SMS in 2013, with nearly 10 trillion messages being sent through each technology.
Even after users were charged for SMS, it remained cheap, about one-tenth of the price of a voice call.
Text messages can also be used to interact with automated systems, for example, to order products or services from e-commerce websites, or to participate in online contests.
The possibility of doing something is one thing, implementing it another, but systems existed from 1988 that sent SMS messages to mobile phones (compare ND-NOTIS).
To convince more customers to buy unlimited text messaging plans, some major cellphone providers have increased the price to send and receive text messages from $.15 to $.20
Finnish Radiolinja became the first network to offer a commercial person-to-person SMS text messaging service in 1994.
SMS is hugely popular in India, where youngsters often exchange many text messages, and companies provide alerts, infotainment, news, cricket scores updates, railway/airline
booking, mobile billing, and banking services on SMS.
Japanese adolescents first began text messaging, because it was a cheaper form of communication than the other available forms.
 Just one of many SMS applications that have proven highly popular and successful in the financial services industry is mobile receipts.
Japan Japan was among the first countries to adopt short messages widely, with pioneering non-GSM services including J-Phone’s SkyMail and NTT Docomo’s Short Mail.
 Mobile service providers in Finland offer contracts in which users can send 1000 text messages a month for €10.
In each of these countries, the cost of sending an SMS message varies from €0.04–0.23, depending on the payment plan (with many contractual plans including all or several
texts for free).
In some cases, when one or more people on the group text are offline, in airplane mode, or has their device shut down, a text being sent to the group may reveal an error message
that the text did not go through.
Some practical uses of text messaging include the use of SMS for confirming delivery or other tasks, for instant communication between a service provider and a client (e.g.,
a payment card company and a consumer), and for sending alerts.
For example, in Australia, a message typically costs between A$0.20 and $0.25 to send (some prepaid services charge $0.01 between their own phones), compared with a voice
call, which costs somewhere between $0.40 and $2.00 per minute (commonly charged in half-minute blocks).
These sites allow registered users to receive free text messages when items they are interested in go on sale, or when new items are introduced.
Text messaging is widely used in business settings; as well, it is used in many civil service and non-governmental organization workplaces.
 Also, in September 2009, a multi-country campaign in Africa used text messaging to expose stock-
As companies seek competitive advantages, many employees are using new technology, collaborative applications, and real-time messaging such as SMS, instant messaging, and
mobile communications to connect with teammates and customers.
Businesses can use SMS for time-critical alerts, updates, and reminders, mobile campaigns, content and entertainment applications.
Sub-Saharan Africa Text messaging will become a key revenue driver for mobile network operators in Africa over the next couple of years.
 Worldwide use Europe SMS is used to send “welcome” messages to mobile phones roaming between countries.
 Fifty percent of American teens send fifty text messages or more per day, making it their most frequent form of communication.
 Industry has had to develop new technology to allow companies to archive their employees’ text messages.
American Personal Communications (APC), the first GSM carrier in America, provided the first text-messaging service in the United States.
Recently, premium messaging companies have come under fire from consumer groups due to a large number of consumers racking up huge phone bills.
Services like 82ASK and Any Question Answered have used the PSMS model to enable rapid response to mobile consumers’ questions, using on-call teams of experts and researchers.
 One factor in the slow take-up of SMS was that operators were slow to set up charging systems, especially for prepaid subscribers, and to eliminate billing fraud, which
was possible by changing SMSC settings on individual handsets to use the SMSCs of other operators.
Users on these plans send on average 1500 SMS messages every month.
These messages can be sent based on either the location of the phone or the address to which the handset is registered.
Since the location of a handset is known, systems can alert everyone in an area that the events have made impossible to pass through e.g.
Commercial uses A multimedia message displayed on a mobile phone Short codes Short codes are special telephone numbers, shorter than full telephone numbers, that
can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones.
The term originally referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service (SMS).
 Mobile interaction services are an alternative way of using SMS in business communications with greater certainty.
However, short messaging has been largely rendered obsolete by the prevalence of mobile Internet e-mail, which can be sent to and received from any e-mail address, mobile
Advertisers and service providers use direct text marketing to send messages to mobile users about promotions, payment due dates, and other notifications instead of using
postal mail, email, or voicemail.
Hence there is no “development” in the US in mobile messaging service.
One way to guarantee such a quality of text messaging lies in introducing SLAs (Service Level Agreement), which are common in IT contracts.
 Long numbers are internationally available, as well as enabling businesses to have their own number, rather than short codes, which are usually shared across a lot of
The integration between competing providers and technologies necessary for cross-network text messaging was not initially available.
This service is primarily aimed at people who, because of disability, are unable to make a voice call.
In the US, there is a move to require both traditional operators and Over-the-top messaging providers to support texting to 911.
It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages using the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as
well as ideograms known as emoji (happy faces, sad faces, and other icons), and instant messenger applications (usually the term is used when on mobile devices).
 Vodafone launched the first Text messaging service in 1999 and has introduced innovative TXT services like Safe TXT and CallMe 2degrees Mobile Ltd launched
in August 2009.
During roaming, that is, when a user connects to another network in different country from his own, the prices may be higher, but in July 2009, EU legislation went into effect
limiting this price to €0.11.
Emergency services In some countries, text messages can be used to contact emergency services.
 Services such as Facebook Messenger, Snapchat, WhatsApp and Viber have led to a decline in the use of SMS in parts of the world.
Some text messages such as SMS can also be used for the remote control of home appliances.
In January 2009, Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) published the Mobile Banking Overview for financial institutions in which it discussed the advantages and disadvantages
of mobile channel platforms such as Short Message Services (SMS), Mobile Web, Mobile Client Applications, SMS with Mobile Web and Secure SMS.
Like e-mail and voicemail and unlike calls (in which the caller hopes to speak directly with the recipient), texting does not require the caller and recipient to both be free
at the same moment; this permits communication even between busy individuals.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rose_braverman/6776075110/’]