Later years and death Jung became a full professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel in 1943 but resigned after a heart attack the next year to lead
a more private life.
Jung’s research and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to follow his older colleague’s doctrine and a schism became inevitable.
 Eventually, a close friendship and a strong professional association developed between the elder Freud and Jung, which left a sizeable correspondence.
In the early 1900s psychology as a science was still in its early stages, but Jung became a qualified proponent of Freud’s new “psycho-analysis”.
Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father’s academic approach to faith.
Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the United States and gave the Fordham University lectures, a six-week series, which were published later in the year as Psychology
of the Unconscious (subsequently republished as Symbols of Transformation).
Though it was mostly taken for granted that Jung’s relationship with Spielrein included a sexual relationship, this assumption has been disputed, in particular by Henry Zvi
 In 1961, Jung wrote his last work, a contribution to Man and His Symbols entitled “Approaching the Unconscious” (published posthumously in 1964).
Freud saw the younger Jung as the heir he had been seeking to take forward his “new science” of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as president of his
newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association.
 His observations about symbols, archetypes, and the collective unconscious were inspired, in part, by these early experiences combined with his later research.
 Jung’s observations overlap to an extent with Freud’s model of the unconscious, what Jung called the “personal unconscious”, but his hypothesis is more about a process
than a static model and he also proposed the existence of a second, overarching form of the unconscious beyond the personal, that he named the psychoid—a term borrowed from neo-vitalist philosopher and embryologist Hans Driesch (1867–1941)—but
with a somewhat altered meaning.
Sonu Shamdasani, an historian of psychology from London, tried for three years to persuade Jung’s resistant heirs to have it published.
His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long who translated and published
the first English volume of his collected writings.
Jung described his book as “an attempt, only partially successful, to create a wider setting for medical psychology and to bring the whole of the psychic phenomena within
 Jung made another trip to America in 1936, receiving an honorary degree at Harvard and giving lectures in New York and New England for his growing group of American
 Travels Jung emerged from his period of isolation in the late nineteen-teens with the publication of several journal articles, followed in 1921 with Psychological
Types, one of his most influential books.
“ University studies and early career The University of Basel, where Jung studied between 1895 and 1900 Initially, Jung had aspirations of becoming a preacher or
minister in his early life.
 Relationship with Freud See also: Psychoanalysis Meeting and collaboration Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University.
From childhood, he believed that like his mother, he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century.
While they contain some remarks on Jung’s dissenting view on the libido, they represent largely a “psychoanalytical Jung” and not the theory of analytical psychology, for
which he became famous in the following decades.
In 1912, however, Jung published Psychology of the Unconscious, which made manifest the developing theoretical divergence between the two.
 Jung de-emphasized the importance of sexual development and focused on the collective unconscious: the part of the unconscious that contains memories and ideas that Jung
believed were inherited from ancestors.
 According to them, “During the period in which he worked on this book Jung developed his principal theories of archetypes, collective unconscious, and the process of
 Emma Jung, whose education had been limited, evinced considerable ability and interest in her husband’s research and threw herself into studies and acted as his assistant
 Six months later, the then 50-year-old Freud sent a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zurich.
He recorded everything he experienced in small journals, which Jung referred to in the singular as his Black Book, considering it a “single integral whole”; and while
among these original journals, some have a brown cover.
 In 1946, Jung agreed to become the first Honorary President of the newly formed Society of Analytical Psychology in London, having previously approved its training programme
devised by Michael Fordham.
Jung’s interest in philosophy and spiritual subjects led many to view him as a mystic, although his preference was to be seen as a man of science; Jung was, unlike Freud,
heavily knowledgeable on philosophical concepts and aimed to link the branch of epistemology to the more modern theories of psychology.
 Thought Jung’s thought was formed by early family influences, which on the maternal side were a blend of interest in the occult and in solid reformed academic theology.
In 1912 Jung gave a series of lectures at Fordham University, New York which were published later in the year as Psychology of the Unconscious.
 Collective unconscious Main article: Collective unconscious Since the establishment of psychoanalytic theory, the notion and meaning of individuals having a personal
unconscious has gradually come to be commonly accepted.
 At the age of 12, shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, Jung was pushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he
momentarily lost consciousness.
Whereas an individual’s personal unconscious is made up of thoughts and emotions which have, at some time, been experienced or held in mind, but which have been repressed
or forgotten, in contrast, the collective unconscious is neither acquired by activities within an individual’s life, nor a container of things that are thoughts, memories or ideas which are capable of being conscious during one’s life.
Many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication.
He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking hurriedly to a visitor about the boy’s future ability to support himself.
 Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (1959), which analyzed the archetypal
meaning and possible psychological significance of the reported observations of UFOs.
 The Black Books and The Red Book Main articles: Red Book (Jung) and Black Books (Jung) The Red Book resting on Jung’s desk In 1913, at the age of thirty-eight,
Jung experienced a horrible “confrontation with the unconscious”.
In India, he felt himself “under the direct influence of a foreign culture” for the first time.
 Although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious.
 At the tenth International Medical Congress for Psychotherapy held at Oxford from 29 July to 2 August 1938, Jung gave the presidential address, followed by a visit to
Cheshire to stay with the Bailey family at Lawton Mere.
Emilie Preiswerk, Carl’s mother, had also grown up in a large family, whose Swiss roots went back five centuries.
Jung defined this as an instinctive feeling of belonging to a particular group or family and Jung believed it was vital to the human experience and used this as an endogamous
aspect of the libido and what lies amongst the family.
For a time, Jung had wanted to study archaeology, but his family could not afford to send him further than the University of Basel, which did not teach archaeology.
The two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated, for a while, on a joint vision of human psychology.
At this time, tensions between father and mother had developed.
However, after forceful objections from his Viennese colleagues, it was agreed Jung would be elected to serve a two-year term of office.
This could be a term Jung learned during his trip to Africa and is similar to a Bantu term called Ubuntu that emphasizes humanity and almost the same meaning as kinship libido,
which is, “I am because you are.
Later he concluded that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised.
According to Sara Corbett, reviewing the text for The New York Times, “The book is bombastic, baroque and like so much else about Carl Jung, a willful oddity, synched with
an antediluvian and mystical reality.
In 1945, he began corresponding with an English Roman Catholic priest, Father Victor White, who became a close friend of Jung, regularly visiting the Jungs at the Bollingen
Hindu philosophy became an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the life of the unconscious, though he avoided a meeting with Ramana Maharshi.
 At a talk about a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement.
 Preceded by a lively correspondence, Jung met Freud for the first time in Vienna on March 3, 1907.
While he did think that libido was an important source for personal growth, unlike Freud, Jung did not believe that libido alone was responsible for the formation of the core
 In 1935, at the invitation of his close British friends and colleagues, H. G. Baynes, E. A. Bennet and Hugh Crichton-Miller, Jung gave a series of lectures at the Tavistock
Clinic in London, later published as part of the Collected Works.
 Jung also studied with Pierre Janet in Paris in 1902 and later equated his view of the complex with Janet’s idée fixe subconsciente.
Years later, he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in indigenous cultures, such as the collection of soul-stones
near Arlesheim or the tjurungas of Australia.
 The same year, he published Diagnostic Association Studies, which he later sent a copy of to Freud—who had already purchased a copy.
 Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress in Munich.
“ After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer.
 London 1913–14 Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in 1913 and 1914.
 Divergence and break Jung outside Burghölzli in 1910 While Jung worked on his Psychology of the Unconscious: a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the
libido, tensions manifested between him and Freud because of various disagreements, including those concerning the nature of libido.
 In his memoir, Jung would remark that this parental influence was the “handicap” I started off with.
They were helped out by relatives who also contributed to Jung’s studies.
There was a strong moral sense in his household and several of his family members were clergymen as well.
Henri Ellenberger called Jung’s intense experience a “creative illness” and compared it favorably to Freud’s own period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria.
 Jung considers that science would hardly deny the existence and basic nature of ‘instincts’, existing as a whole set of motivating urges.
Jung’s mother was an eccentric and depressed woman; she spent considerable time in her bedroom, where she said that spirits visited her at night.
[‘• 1912 Psychology of the Unconscious
• 1916 Seven Sermons to the Dead (a part of the Red Book, published privately)
• 1921 Psychological Types
• 1933 Modern Man in Search of a Soul (essays)
• 1944 Psychology and Alchemy
• 1951 Aion: Researches
into the Phenomenology of the Self
• 1952 Symbols of Transformation (revised edition of Psychology of the Unconscious)
• 1954 Answer to Job
• 1956 Mysterium Coniunctionis: An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in
• 1959 Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (Translated by R. F. C. Hull)
• 1961 Memories, Dreams, Reflections (autobiography, co-written with Aniela Jaffé)
• 1964 Man and His Symbols (Jung contributed one part,
his last writing before his death in 1961; the other four parts are by Marie-Louise von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jaffé, and Jolande Jacobi)
• 2009 The Red Book: Liber Novus (manuscript produced circa 1915–1932)
• 2020 Black Books (private journals
produced circa 1913–1932, on which the Red Book is based)
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Eds. Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, Gerhard Adler. Executive ed. W. McGuire. Trans R.F.C. Hull. London: Routledge Kegan Paul (1953–1980).
2. Experimental Researches (1904–10) (trans L. Stein and D. Riviere)
3. Psychogenesis of Mental Disease (1907–14; 1919–58)
4. Freud and Psychoanalysis (1906–14; 1916–30)
5. Symbols of Transformation (1911–12; 1952)
7. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1912–28)
8. Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche (1916–52)
9.1 Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1934–55)
9.2 Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (1951)
in Transition (1918–1959)
11. Psychology and Religion: West and East (1932–52)
12. Psychology and Alchemy (1936–44)
13. Alchemical Studies (1919–45):
14. Mysterium Coniunctionis (1955–56):
15. Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature (1929–1941)
The Practice of Psychotherapy (1921–25)
17. The Development of Personality (1910; 1925–43)
18. The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings
19. General Bibliography
20. General Index
A. The Zofingia Lectures
of the Unconscious (trans. Beatrice M. Hinckle)
Analytical Psychology (1925)
Dream Analysis (1928–30)
The Kundalini Yoga (1932)
Nietzsche’s Zarathustra (1934-39)
Children’s Dreams (1936-1940)
1. As a university
student Jung changed the modernized spelling of Karl to the original family form of Carl. Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books. pp. 7, 53. ISBN 978-0-316-15938-8.
2. ^ Also see other general concepts of ‘motif’ covering
visual arts, narrative, etcetera
3. ^ ‘For Jung, alchemy is not only part of the pre-history of chemistry, that is, not only laboratory work, but also an essential part of the history of psychology as the history of the discovery of the deep structure
of the psyche and its unconscious. Jung emphasized the significance of the symbolic structure of alchemical texts, a structure that is understood as a way independent of laboratory research, as a structure per se.’ Calian, George Florin (2010). Alkimia
Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa. Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy. Budapest: Annual of Medieval Studies at CEU. pp. 167–168.
4. ^ A full response from Jung discounting the rumors can be found in C. G Jung Speaking, Interviews
and Encounters, Princeton University Press, 1977.
5. Jung, C.G. ( 1969). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1. par. 259
Jump up to:a b Carl Jung (1959) . “Concerning the Archetypes, with Special Reference to the Anima Concept (Translated from Uber den Archetypus mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Animabegriffes, Von den Wurzeln des Bewusstseins (Zurich: Rascher,
1954))”. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. p. 55, para. 113. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
7. ^ Carl Jung (1973) . Adler, Gerhard; Jaffé, Aniela (eds.). C.G.Jung Letters.
Vol. 1: 1906–1950. Translated by Hull, R. F. C. Princeton University Press. letter 28 February 1932, page 88. ISBN 978-0-691-09895-1. Here are my answers to your questions about Goethe: My mother drew my attention to Faust when I was about 15 years
old… Goethe was important to me because of Faust… In my circle, Faust is an object of lively interest. I once knew a wholesaler who always carried a pocket edition of Faust around with him.
8. ^ Carl Jung (1963). Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
Random House. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-679-72395-0.
9. ^ Jung, C.G. (2014). Two Essays on Analytical Psychology. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 9781317535362. Old Heraclitus, who was indeed a very great sage, discovered the most marvellous of all psychological
laws: the regulative function of opposites. He called it enantiodromia, a running contrariwise, by which he meant that sooner or later everything runs into its opposite.
10. ^ Paul C. Bishop (1 June 1996). “The use of Kant in Jung’s early psychological
works”. Journal of European Studies. 26 (2): 107–140. doi:10.1177/004724419602600201. S2CID 161392112. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b Zabriskie, Beverley (2005). “Synchronicity and the I Ching: Jung, Pauli, and the Chinese woman”.
The Journal of Analytical Psychology. 50 (2): 223–235. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8774.2005.00525.x. PMID 15817044.
12. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 68.
13. ^ Falzeder, Ernst; Beebe, John (eds.). The Question of Psychological Types: The Correspondence
between C. G. Jung and Hans Schmid-Guisan, 1915–1916. p. 30.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b Young-Eisendrath, Polly (2010). The Cambridge Companion To Jung. Cambridge University. pp. 24–30.
15. ^ Carl Jung (1976). “II. Schiller’s Ideas on the Type Problem”.
Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 6: Psychological Types. Princeton University Press. The service rendered by Schiller from our psychological point of view, as will become clear in the course of our exposition, is by no means inconsiderable, for
he offers us carefully worked out lines of approach whose value we, psychologists, are only just beginning to appreciate.
16. ^ Eileen Rizo-Patron, Edward S. Casey, Jason M. Wirth (eds.), Adventures in Phenomenology: Gaston Bachelard, SUNY Press,
2017, p. 123 n. 11.
17. ^ Philip K. Dick (2011) . “Letter to Claudia Bush, November 26, 1974”. In Jackson, Pamela; Lethem, Jonathan (eds.). The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-547-54927-9.
“What Is the Electra Complex?”. 13 February 2019.
19. ^ Hesse, Hermann (1973) . “Addenda, April 1950, letter to Emanuel Maier from Hermann Hesse”. C.G.Jung Letters. By Carl Jung. Adler, Gerhard; Jaffé, Aniela (eds.). Vol. 1: 1906–1950. Translated
by Hull, R. F. C. Princeton University Press. p. 575. ISBN 978-0-691-09895-1. In 1916 I underwent an analysis with a doctor friend of mine who was in part a pupil of Jung’s. At that time I became acquainted with Jung’s early work, the Wandlungen
der Libido, which made an impression on me. I also read later books by Jung
20. ^ Erich Neumann (2014) . “Introduction”. The Origins and History of Consciousness. Princeton University Press. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-691-16359-8. The following attempt
to outline the archetypal stages in the development of consciousness is based on modern depth psychology. It is an application of the analytical psychology of C. G. Jung, even where we endeavor to amplify this psychology, and even though we may speculatively
overstep its boundaries.
21. ^ Jordan Peterson (1999). “Preface: Descensus ad Infernos”. Maps of Meaning. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-415-92222-7. I read something by Carl Jung, at about this time, that helped me understand what I was experiencing.
It was Jung who formulated the concept of persona: the mask that “feigned individuality”. Adoption of such a mask, according to Jung, allowed each of us- and those around us – to believe that we were authentic. Jung said…
22. ^ “Jean Piaget Biography”.
10 July 2020.
23. ^ Kelland, Mark D. (17 August 2020). “Carl Rogers and Humanistic Psychology”.
24. ^ Hall, Ian (2006). The International Thought of Martin Wight. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 188. doi:10.1057/9781403983527. ISBN 978-1-4039-8352-7.
Jump up to:a b Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
26. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
27. ^ Darowski, Emily; Darowski, Joseph (1 June 2016). “Carl Jung’s Historic Place in Psychology and Continuing Influence in Narrative Studies and American Popular Culture”. Swiss American Historical
Society Review. 52 (2). ISSN 0883-4814.
28. ^ “The Life of Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961)”, Carl Gustav Jung, London: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 1–38, 2001, doi:10.4135/9781446218921.n1, ISBN 978-0-7619-6238-0, retrieved 8 October 2020
29. ^ Schellinski,
Kristina (2014). “Who am I?”. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 59 (2): 189–210. doi:10.1111/1468-5922.12069. PMID 24673274.
30. ^ Jump up to:a b c Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung: a Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury, Dorset: Shambhala. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-87773-455-0.
Brome, Vincent (1978). Jung. New York: Atheneum. p. 28.
32. ^ Bair, pp. 8–13.
33. ^ Jump up to:a b Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 18.
34. ^ Dunne, Claire (2002). Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul: An Illustrated Biography. Continuum.
35. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 8.
36. ^ Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, p. 233.
37. ^ Bair, p. 25.
38. ^ Stepp, G. “Carl Jung: Forever Jung”. Vision Journal. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
39. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
40. ^ Wehr records that Paul Jung’s chosen career path was to achieve a doctorate in philology. He was an Arabist, but the family money ran out for his studies. Relief came from a family legacy, however, a condition of the will was that
it should only be offered to a family member who intended to study theology and become a pastor. Paul Jung, therefore, had his career determined by a will, not his will. See page 20.
41. ^ Jump up to:a b c Malchiodi, Cathy A. (2006). The Art Therapy
Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-07-146827-5.
42. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 22–23.
43. ^ Wehr, G. p. 144
44. ^ “Carl Jung | Biography, Theory, & Facts”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 30.
46. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 32.
47. ^ “Carl Jung | Biography, Theory, & Facts”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
48. ^ Jump up to:a b Carl Jung Archived 20 January 2018 at the
Wayback Machine. Retrieved 7 March 2009
49. ^ Wehr, G. p. 57.
50. ^ Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung: A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury, Dorset: Shambhala. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-87773-455-0.
51. ^ Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, pp. 234, 259.
52. ^ Stevens,
Anthony (1994): Jung: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford & N.Y. ISBN 978-0-19-285458-2
53. ^ Gay, p. 198
54. ^ Ellenberger, p. 149.
55. ^ Wehr, pp. 79–85.
56. ^ Jung, Carl Gustav & Riklin, Franz Beda: Diagnoistische
Assoziationsstudien. I. Beitrag. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über Assoziationen Gesunder (pp.55–83). 1904, Journ. Psych. Neurol., 3/1-2. – Hrsg. v. August Forel & Oskar Vogt. Red. v. Karl Brodmann. – Leipzig, Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1904,
gr.-8°, pp.55–96. (in German)
57. ^ Jump up to:a b McGuire, William (1979). The Freud/Jung Letters. Picador. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-330-25891-3.
58. ^ Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, p. 259.
59. ^ Jump up to:a b Hayman, Ronald (2001). A Life
of Jung (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-01967-4.
60. ^ Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, p. 234.
61. ^ “C. G. JUNG: Experiences”. IWC Schaffhausen. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
62. ^ Wehr, G. p. 423
63. ^ Hayman,
Ronald (2001). A Life of Jung (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 84–5, 92, 98–9, 102–7, 121, 123, 111, 134–7, 138–9, 145, 147, 152, 176, 177, 184, 185, 186, 189, 194, 213–4. ISBN 978-0-393-01967-4.
64. ^ Hayman, Ronald (2001). A
Life of Jung (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 184–8, 189, 244, 261, 262. ISBN 978-0-393-01967-4.
65. ^ Carotenuto, A. A secret symmetry. Sabina Spielrien between Jung and Freud. Tran. Arno Pomerans, John Shepley, Krishna Winston.
New York: Pantheon Books, 1982
66. ^ Lothane. Z. Tender love and transference. Unpublished letters of C G Jung and Sabina Spielrein. International Journal of Psychoanalysis’. 80, 1999, 1189–1204; Lothane, Z. (2007b). The snares of seduction in
life and in therapy, or what do young [Jewish] girls (Spielrein) seek in their Aryan heroes (Jung), and vice versa? International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 16:12–27, 81–94
67. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (1999). Jung: A Journey of Transformation. Quest Books.
p. 56. ISBN 978-0-8356-0782-7.
68. ^ Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, p. 260.
69. ^ Wehr, Gerhard. (1987). Jung – A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury: Shambhala. ISBN 978-0-87773-455-0. p. 77
70. ^ “William McGuire, Ed. The Freud/Jung letters: The
correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung, translated by Ralph Manheim and R. F. C. Hull. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988 (first published in 1974 by Princeton University Press). 736 pp. $15.95 (paper)”. Journal of the History
of the Behavioral Sciences. 26 (3): 303. July 1990. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(199007)26:3
<303::aid-jhbs2300260335>3.0.co;2-e. ISSN 0022-5061.
71. ^ Wehr, p. 105-6.
72. ^ Peter Gay, Freud: a Life for Our Time (London, 1988) p. 202.
73. ^ McGuire, W. 1974. The Correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C.G. Jung. Translated by Ralph Manheim and R.F.C. Hull.
Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09890-6
74. ^ Jump up to:a b Rosenzwieg, Saul (1992). Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker. ISBN 978-0-88937-110-1.
75. ^ Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis.
Duckworth. pp. 249. ISBN 978-0-7156-3759-3.
76. ^ Jung, Carl (1963). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Pantheon Books. p. 206.
77. ^ Carlson, Heth (2010). Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-205-64524-4.
Jump up to:a b Gay, Peter (2006). Freud: A Life for Our Time. Norton. p. 225.
79. ^ Mary Williams, “The Indivisibility of the Personal and Collective Unconscious”, Journal of Analytical Psychology 8.1, January 1963. See also: Jung, Collected
Works vol. 9.I (1959), “The Concept of the Collective Unconscious” (1936), ¶91 (p. 43).
80. ^ Vernon, Mark (6 June 2011). “Carl Jung, part 2: A troubled relationship with Freud – and the Nazis”. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 July
81. ^ Addison, Ann (2009). “Jung, vitalism and the psychoid: an historical reconstruction”. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 54 (1): 123–42. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5922.2008.01762.x. PMID 19161521.
82. ^ Jones, Ernest, ed. Lionel Trilling
and Steven Marcus. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, New York: Anchor Books, 1963.
83. ^ Jump up to:a b Vernon, Mark (6 June 2011). “Carl Jung, part 2: A troubled relationship with Freud – and the Nazis”. The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
McGuire, William. (1995), ‘Firm Affinities: Jung’s relations with Britain and the United States’ in Journal of analytical Psychology, 40, p. 301-326.
85. ^ Jung, C. G. (1916). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology. Dr. Constance E. Long.
Bailliere, Tindall and Cox.
86. ^ Jump up to:a b Jung, Carl (October 2020). “Editors Note”. In Shamdasani, Sonu (ed.). The Black Books of C.G. Jung (1913–1932). Stiftung der Werke von C. G. Jung & W. W. Norton & Company. Volume 1 page 113.
Jung, C.G. (2012). “Editor’s Note”. The Red Book Reader’s Edition. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 105–110.
88. ^ Jung, C.G. (2009). “Editor’s Note”. The Red Book. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 225–226.
89. ^ Jung, C.G. (2009). “Introduction”.
The Red Book. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 203.
90. ^ Jung, C.G. (2012). “Introduction”. The Red Book Reader’s Edition. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 32.
91. ^ Jump up to:a b c Corbett, Sara (16 September 2009). “The Holy Grail of the Unconscious”.
The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
92. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Red Book of C. G. Jung”. Rubin Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b McGuire, William (1995).
“Firm Affinities: Jung’s relations with Britain and the United States”. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 40 (3): 301–326. doi:10.1111/j.1465-5922.1995.00301.x.
94. ^ Jung, C.G. (1935). Tavistock Lectures, in The Symbolic Life. Collected Works,
vol.18. London: Routledge. pp. 1–182. ISBN 978-0-7100-8291-6.
95. ^ Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, p. 261.
96. ^ Lunding, N. Chr.; Bruel, Oluf (March 1939). “The Tenth International Congress of Medical Psychotherapy in Oxford, July 29 to
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97. ^ Kirsch, Thomas B. (2012). The Jungians: a Comparative and Historical Perspective. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-134-72551-9.
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99. ^ Jung, Carl (1988). Psychology and Western
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100. ^ Duvall, John N.
(2008). Race and White Identity in Southern Fiction: From Faulkner to Morrison. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-230-61182-5.
101. ^ Burleson, Blake W. (2005). Jung in Africa. ISBN 978-0-8264-6921-2.
102. ^ Vaughan, A.G (2019). “African
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103. ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. pp. 417–430.
104. ^ Jump up to:a b Hoerni, Fischer & Kaufmann 2019, p. 262.
105. ^ The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, p. 152, by Siegfried M. Clemens, Carl Gustav Jung, 1978.
106. ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung. Boston: Little,
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107. ^ “Dr. Carl G. Jung is Dead at 85; Pioneer in Analytic Psychology”. The New York Times.
108. ^ Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung – A Biography. Translated by Weeks, David. M. Boston: Shambala. pp. 501–505.
109. ^ Wehr, Gerhard. p. 14. “Sophie Ziegler Jung was later friendly with Lotte Kestner, a niece of Goethe’s ‘Lottchen’. This Lotte frequently came to see my grandfather—as, incidentally, did Franz Liszt. In later
years Lotte Kestner settled in Basel, no doubt because of these close ties with the Jung family.”
110. ^ “Jung’s metaphysic and epistemology: Platonism or Phenomenology?”.
111. ^ Lachman, Gary (2010). Jung the Mystic. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.
p. 258. ISBN 978-1-58542-792-5.
112. ^ Anthony Stevens (1991) On Jung London: Penguin Books, pp. 27–53
113. ^ Dicks-Mireaux, M. J. (1964). “Extraversion-Introversion in Experimental Psychology: Examples of Experimental Evidence and their Theoretical
Explanations”, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 9, 2.
114. ^ Anthony Stevens (1991) On Jung London: Penguin Books, p. 199.
115. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “The Jungian Model of the Psyche | Journal Psyche”. journalpsyche.org. Retrieved 11 January
116. ^ Bright, George. (1997) “Synchronicity as a basis of analytic attitude”, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 42, 4
117. ^ Carl Jung (1959). “Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype”. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious,
Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. para. 152. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
118. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Carl Jung (1959). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University
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119. ^ Carl Jung (1959). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. para. 91. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
120. ^ Carl Jung (1959).
The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. para. 80-81. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
121. ^ Carl Jung (1959). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume
9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. para. 153. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
122. ^ Carl Jung (1959). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. para. 99. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
Carl Jung (1959). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, Volume 9, Part 1. Princeton University Press. para. 89,110,115. ISBN 978-0-691-01833-1.
124. ^ “What is Jungian Psychology? – Types, Archetypes, Complexes and
More”. PsychoTreat. 27 August 2021.
125. ^ C.G. Jung. Psychological Types. Princeton University Press, 1971. pp. 136–147.
126. ^ Stepp, G. “People: Who Needs Them”. Vision Journal. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
127. ^ Arild, Sigurd (19 April
2014). “5 Basic Facts about Jung and Types”. CelebrityTypes. CelebrityTypes International. p. 1. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
128. ^ Jolande Székács Jacobi, Masks of the Soul. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1977; Robert H. Hopcke, Persona.
Berkeley: Shambhala Publications, 1995.
129. ^ Carl Gustav Jung”, The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious”, in: Joseph Campbell (ed.), The Portable Jung. New York: Viking Press, 1971, p. 106.
130. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, Two Essays on
Analytical Psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2nd ed. 1977, p. 157.
131. ^ Joann S. Lublin, “How to Look and Act Like a Leader”, The Wall Street Journal, 12 September 2011.
132. ^ Kees van der Pijl, “May 1968 and the Alternative
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133. ^ “Aniela Jaffe, foreword to Memories, Dreams, Reflections”. Vintage Books. 1963.
134. ^ Dunne, Clare (2002). “Prelude”. Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the
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135. ^ Frick, Eckhard; Lautenschlager, Bruno (2007). Auf Unendliches bezogen – Spirituelle Entdeckungen bei C. G. Jung. Munich: Koesel. p.
204. ISBN 978-3-466-36780-1.
136. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (2000). Jung: A Journey of Transformation: Exploring His Life and Experiencing His Ideas. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0-8356-0782-7.
137. ^ Andrew Reid Fuller, “Psychology and
Religion: Eight Points of View”, 2002, p. 111
138. ^ “BBC Face to Face broadcast, 22 October 1959”. YouTube.
139. ^ Rollins, Wayne Giibert (2013). Jung and the Bible. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers [reprint of 1983 edition]. p.
121. ISBN 978-1-62564-261-5. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
140. ^ Wulff, David (1991). Psychology of Religion: Classic and Contemporary Views. Wiley and Sons. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-471-50236-4.
141. ^ Levin, Jerome David (1995). “Other Etiological
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142. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. (1984) Pass It On: The Story of Bill Wilson and How the A.A. Message Reached the
World. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. ISBN 978-0-916856-12-0, page. 381–386.
143. ^ Jung, C. G.; Adler, G. and Hull, R. F. C., eds. (1977), Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09892-0, p. 272, as noted 2007-08-26 at http://www.stellarfire.org/additional.html Archived 8 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
144. ^ “Jungian 12 Steps”. Hope Makers. Archived from
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145. ^ Jump up to:a b Carl Gustav Jung (1997). Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal. Psychology Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-15509-0.
146. ^ Jump up to:a b Carl Gustav Jung (1997). Jung
on Synchronicity and the Paranormal. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-415-15509-0.
147. ^ Nickell, Joe (September 2002). “”Visitations”: After-Death Contacts”. Skeptical Inquirer. 12 (3). Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved
8 August 2018.
148. ^ Michael Shermer; Pat Linse (2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 240–241. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8.
149. ^ C. G. Jung (15 April 2013). Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. Routledge.
p. 27. ISBN 978-1-134-96845-9.
150. ^ Sullivan, Charles (August 2009). “Whats Wrong with the I Ching? Ambiguity, Obscurity, and Synchronicity”. Skeptical Inquirer. 33 (4). Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
Jung, C. G. and Wolfgang Pauli, The Interpretation of Nature and Psyche, New York: Pantheon Books, 1955.
152. ^ Jung, Carl (2012). “Epilogue”. In Shamdasani, Sonu (ed.). The Red Book (Reader ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 555.
153. ^ Jung,
Carl (1952). “From Editorial Note to the First Edition”. In Hull, R.F.C. (ed.). Psychology and Alchemy (1968 Second Edition completely revised ed.). Princeton University Press.
154. ^ Chodorow, Joan (1991). “Dance Therapy and Depth Psychology:
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155. ^ Pallaro, Patrizia (15 January 2007). Authentic Movement: Moving the Body, Moving the Self, Being Moved: A Collection of Essays – Volume Two. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84642-586-8.
156. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
157. ^ C. G. Jung, Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Ich und
dem Unbewußten, chapter one, second section, 1928. Also, C. G. Jung Aufsätze zur Zeitgeschichte, 1946. Speeches made in 1933 and 1937 are excerpted.
158. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society.
New American Library. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
159. ^ Jump up to:a b Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
160. ^ Jung, Carl
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161. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
163. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society.
New American Library. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
164. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 14 & 45. ISBN 978-0-451-21860-5.
165. ^ Jump up to:a b Clark, R.W
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166. ^ Lifton, Robert Jay (27 January 1985). “Lifton, Robert Jay (27 January 1985) “Psychotherapy in the Third Reich””. The New York Times. The New York Times
167. ^ Jaffé, Aniela
(1972); From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 978-0-340-12515-1; pp. 79–80.
168. ^ An English translation of the circular is in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London;
ISBN 978-0-7100-1640-9; pp. 545–546.
169. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 978-0-340-12515-1; p. 82.
170. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung; Hodder
and Stoughton, London. ISBN 978-0-340-12515-1; p. 80.
171. ^ Mark Medweth. “Jung and the Nazis”, in Psybernetika, Winter 1996.
172. ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul,
London; ISBN 978-0-7100-1640-9; p. 538.
173. ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 978-0-7100-1640-9; p. 538. See also Stevens, Anthony, Jung: a very short
introduction, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-285458-2
174. ^ Jump up to:a b Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 978-0-340-12515-1; p. 83.
175. ^ Noll,
Richard (1994). The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (1st ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 336.
176. ^ Grossman 1979.
177. ^ Noll, Richard (1994). The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (1st ed.). Princeton University
Press. p. 134.
178. ^ Sherry, Jay (2010). Carl Gustav Jung: Avant-Garde Conservative. Palgrave Macmillan.
179. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 978-0-7100-1640-9; p. 185.
180. ^ C.
G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, eds William McGuire and R. F. C. Hull, Princeton University Press, pp. 128, reprint from Diagnosing the Dictators (1938).
181. ^ C. G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, eds William McGuire
and R. F. C. Hull (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), pp. 91–93, 115–135, 136–40.
182. ^ Interview with Carol Baumann, published in the Bulletin of Analytical Psychology Club of New York, December 1949.
183. ^ Collected Works, Volume 10
Falk, A Anti-Semitism A History and Psychoanalysis of Contemporary Hatred Westport Connecticut: Praeger, 2008, pp. 110–111
185. ^ Letter to William M Kranefeldt dd 9 February 1934 reprinted in the International Review of Psychoanalysis Vol.
186. ^ Samuels, Andrew. (1997), Institute of Historical Research, University of London e-seminar.”Jung and Anti-Semitism”, Also published in the Jewish Quarterly, Spring 1994.
187. ^ Dickey, Christopher (12 November 2016). “The
Shrink as Secret Agent: Jung, Hitler, and the OSS”. The Daily Beast.
188. ^ Hopcke, R. (1988). “Jung and Homosexuality: A Clearer Vision”. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 33 (1): 65–80. doi:10.1111/j.1465-5922.1988.00065.x. PMID 3350769.
Hill, S.J. 2013. Confrontation with the Unconscious: Jungian Depth Psychology and Psychedelic Experience: Muswell Hill Press.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L., et al. 2010. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of
Freudian ideas. Brain 133(4):1265–1283.; 2014 The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.; Clark, Gary. ′Integrating the Archaic and the Modern:
The Red Book, Visual Cognitive Modalities and the Neuroscience of Altered States of Consciousness′. In Jung’s Red Book for Our Time: Searching for Soul Under Postmodern Conditions Volume 4. Ed. Murray Stein and Thomas Arzt. Chiron Publications.
Carhart-Harris, Robin L., et al. 2010. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas. Brain 133(4):1265–1283.; 2014 The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research
with psychedelic drugs. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8. Clark, Gary, 2021. Carl Jung and the Psychedelic Brain:An Evolutionary Model of Analytical Psychology Informed by Psychedelic Neuroscience. International Journal of Jungian Studies
191. ^ Clark, Gary. Integrating the Archaic and the Modern: The Red Book, Visual Cognitive Modalities and the Neuroscience of Altered States of Consciousness. In Jung’s Red Book for Our Time: Searching for Soul Under Postmodern Conditions
Volume 4. Ed. Murray Stein and Thomas Arzt. Chiron Publications, p. 147.
192. ^ Clark, Gary. Integrating the Archaic and the Modern: The Red Book, Visual Cognitive Modalities and the Neuroscience of Altered States of Consciousness. In Jung’s
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193. ^ Jung, C.G., G. Adler, and A. Jaffé. 1976. Letters: Routledge, p. 382. Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/_lev_/471298577/’]